Round 1

Entities: import and show first round of coding

if (update_round1_data) {

  round1_text_raw <- readLines(paste0(round1_entities_url, "/export?format=txt"),
                               warn=FALSE);
  
  sourceBeginning <- grep("### Beginning of source", round1_text_raw);
  
  if (length(sourceBeginning) > 0) {
    round1_text <-
      round1_text_raw[(min(sourceBeginning)+1):length(round1_text_raw)];
  } else {
    round1_text <-
      round1_text_raw;
  }
  
  ### Strip names, if entered (the [^[]* bit matches the names)
  round1_anonymized <-
    gsub("(.*) -- (.*) -- (.*) -- (.*) -- [^[]*",
         "\\1 -- \\2 -- \\3 -- (removed) -- (removed) ",
         round1_text);

  ### Write local backup
  writeLines(
    round1_anonymized,
    con = file.path(dataPath, "round-1-entity-results.rock")
  );

}

# devtools::load_all("C:/pC/git/R/rock");

round1_parsed <-
  rock::parse_source(
    file.path(dataPath, "round-1-entity-results.rock")
  );

### Highest level codes:
hiLevelCodes <-
  names(round1_parsed$inductiveCodeTrees$codes$children);

rock::show_inductive_code_tree(round1_parsed);

Inductive code tree for codes

%0 1->2 1->4 1->8 1->10 1->14 1->44 1->49 1->50 1->63 1->64 1->76 1->77 1->119 1->121 1->122 1->123 2->3 4->5 4->6 4->7 8->9 10->11 10->12 10->13 14->15 14->22 14->25 14->26 14->27 14->34 14->35 14->36 14->37 14->39 14->40 14->41 14->42 14->43 15->16 15->17 15->18 15->19 15->20 15->21 22->23 22->24 27->28 27->29 27->30 27->31 27->32 27->33 37->38 44->45 44->48 45->46 45->47 50->51 50->52 50->53 50->55 50->56 50->57 50->58 50->59 50->60 50->62 53->54 60->61 64->65 64->70 64->71 64->72 64->73 64->74 64->75 65->66 65->67 65->68 65->69 77->78 77->100 78->79 78->80 78->81 78->82 78->83 78->84 78->85 78->86 78->87 78->88 78->89 78->90 78->91 78->94 78->99 91->92 92->93 94->95 94->96 96->97 97->98 100->101 100->102 100->103 100->104 100->105 100->106 100->107 100->108 100->109 100->110 100->111 100->112 100->113 100->114 100->115 100->116 100->117 100->118 119->120 1 codes 2 database 3 userType 4 development 5 broadInvolvement 6 country 7 framework 8 distribution 9 appStore 10 documentation 11 adrIndicentReport 12 forDevs 13 forUsers 14 implementation 15 backend 16 humanInvolvement 17 interoperability 18 OS 19 programmingLang 20 sourceCode 21 tailoring 22 cost 23 developer 24 user 25 country 26 dataSharing 27 frontend 28 deliveryMode 29 humanInvolvement 30 responsiveDesign 31 sourceCode 32 tailoring 33 usability 34 healthcareIntegration 35 privacyCertification 36 requiredDeviceSpecs 37 requiredInfrastructure 38 linkedDevice 39 strategies 40 uptake 41 userConsent 42 version 43 yearDev 44 implementTool 45 provenance 46 developers 47 funding 48 toolDistributor 49 license 50 logicModel 51 BCP 52 bcpInstantiation 53 designFeatures 54 userControl 55 intendedUse 56 interventionDuration 57 interventionGoal 58 psychConstructGeneric 59 psychConstructSpecific 60 targetConstruct 61 condition 62 theory 63 medicalDevice 64 metadata 65 authors 66 contactDetails 67 content 68 ORCID 69 sciDiscipline 70 CoI 71 date 72 developers 73 funding 74 language 75 yearPublication 76 openSource 77 study 78 method 79 analysis 80 eligibilityCrit 81 instrumentReliability 82 instrumentValidity 83 masking 84 matching 85 power 86 preReg 87 randomization 88 recruitment 89 sampleSizeCalc 90 sampling 91 statsAnalysis 92 software 93 codeImpl 94 studyDesign 95 followUps 96 sysRev 97 search 98 keywords 99 yearStudy 100 results 101 acceptability 102 descriptives 103 effectSize 104 forestPlot 105 missingData 106 networkPlot 107 participantCharacteristics 108 participantFlow 109 posteriorDistr 110 primaryOutcome 111 riskOfBias 112 sample 113 sampleCharacteristics 114 sampleSize 115 secondaryOutcome 116 targetBehaviour 117 usability 118 userEngagement 119 targetPopulation 120 condition 121 targetProblem 122 targetSetting 123 targetSystemUnit
                            levelName
1   codes                            
2    ¦--database                     
3    ¦   °--userType                 
4    ¦--development                  
5    ¦   ¦--broadInvolvement         
6    ¦   ¦--country                  
7    ¦   °--framework                
8    ¦--distribution                 
9    ¦   °--appStore                 
10   ¦--documentation                
11   ¦   ¦--adrIndicentReport        
12   ¦   ¦--forDevs                  
13   ¦   °--forUsers                 
14   ¦--implementation               
15   ¦   ¦--backend                  
16   ¦   ¦   ¦--humanInvolvement     
17   ¦   ¦   ¦--interoperability     
18   ¦   ¦   ¦--OS                   
19   ¦   ¦   ¦--programmingLang      
20   ¦   ¦   ¦--sourceCode           
21   ¦   ¦   °--tailoring            
22   ¦   ¦--cost                     
23   ¦   ¦   ¦--developer            
24   ¦   ¦   °--user                 
25   ¦   ¦--country                  
26   ¦   ¦--dataSharing              
27   ¦   ¦--frontend                 
28   ¦   ¦   ¦--deliveryMode         
29   ¦   ¦   ¦--humanInvolvement     
30   ¦   ¦   ¦--responsiveDesign     
31   ¦   ¦   ¦--sourceCode           
32   ¦   ¦   ¦--tailoring            
33   ¦   ¦   °--usability            
34   ¦   ¦--healthcareIntegration    
35   ¦   ¦--privacyCertification     
36   ¦   ¦--requiredDeviceSpecs      
37   ¦   ¦--requiredInfrastructure   
38   ¦   ¦   °--linkedDevice         
39   ¦   ¦--strategies               
40   ¦   ¦--uptake                   
41   ¦   ¦--userConsent              
42   ¦   ¦--version                  
43   ¦   °--yearDev                  
44   ¦--implementTool                
45   ¦   ¦--provenance               
46   ¦   ¦   ¦--developers           
47   ¦   ¦   °--funding              
48   ¦   °--toolDistributor          
49   ¦--license                      
50   ¦--logicModel                   
51   ¦   ¦--BCP                      
52   ¦   ¦--bcpInstantiation         
53   ¦   ¦--designFeatures           
54   ¦   ¦   °--userControl          
55   ¦   ¦--intendedUse              
56   ¦   ¦--interventionDuration     
57   ¦   ¦--interventionGoal         
58   ¦   ¦--psychConstructGeneric    
59   ¦   ¦--psychConstructSpecific   
60   ¦   ¦--targetConstruct          
61   ¦   ¦   °--condition            
62   ¦   °--theory                   
63   ¦--medicalDevice                
64   ¦--metadata                     
65   ¦   ¦--authors                  
66   ¦   ¦   ¦--contactDetails       
67   ¦   ¦   ¦--content              
68   ¦   ¦   ¦--ORCID                
69   ¦   ¦   °--sciDiscipline        
70   ¦   ¦--CoI                      
71   ¦   ¦--date                     
72   ¦   ¦--developers               
73   ¦   ¦--funding                  
74   ¦   ¦--language                 
75   ¦   °--yearPublication          
76   ¦--openSource                   
77   ¦--study                        
78   ¦   ¦--method                   
79   ¦   ¦   ¦--analysis             
80   ¦   ¦   ¦--eligibilityCrit      
81   ¦   ¦   ¦--instrumentReliability
82   ¦   ¦   ¦--instrumentValidity   
83   ¦   ¦   ¦--masking              
84   ¦   ¦   ¦--matching             
85   ¦   ¦   ¦--power                
86   ¦   ¦   ¦--preReg               
87   ¦   ¦   ¦--randomization        
88   ¦   ¦   ¦--recruitment          
89   ¦   ¦   ¦--sampleSizeCalc       
90   ¦   ¦   ¦--sampling             
91   ¦   ¦   ¦--statsAnalysis        
92   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--software         
93   ¦   ¦   ¦       °--codeImpl     
94   ¦   ¦   ¦--studyDesign          
95   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--followUps        
96   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--sysRev           
97   ¦   ¦   ¦       °--search       
98   ¦   ¦   ¦           °--keywords 
99   ¦   ¦   °--yearStudy            
100  ¦   °--... 1 nodes w/ 18 sub    
101  °--... 4 nodes w/ 20 sub        
rock::collect_coded_fragments(
  round1_parsed,
  codes = hiLevelCodes,
  includeDescendents = TRUE,
  headingLevel = 2,
  codeHeadingFormatting = "\n\n### %s\n\n*path:* `%s`\n\n",
  silent = FALSE
);
The regular expression passed in argument `codes` ('^database$|^development$|^distribution$|^documentation$|^implementation$|^implementTool$|^license$|^logicModel$|^medicalDevice$|^metadata$|^openSource$|^study$|^targetPopulation$|^targetProblem$|^targetSetting$|^targetSystemUnit$') matches the following codings: 'database', 'development', 'distribution', 'documentation', 'implementation', 'implementTool', 'license', 'logicModel', 'medicalDevice', 'metadata', 'openSource', 'study', 'targetPopulation', 'targetProblem', 'targetSetting' & 'targetSystemUnit'.

After combining with the descendent codes, the current list is: 'database', 'userType', 'development', 'broadInvolvement', 'country', 'framework', 'distribution', 'appStore', 'documentation', 'adrIndicentReport', 'forDevs', 'forUsers', 'implementation', 'backend', 'humanInvolvement', 'interoperability', 'OS', 'programmingLang', 'sourceCode', 'tailoring', 'cost', 'developer', 'user', 'country', 'dataSharing', 'frontend', 'deliveryMode', 'humanInvolvement', 'responsiveDesign', 'sourceCode', 'tailoring', 'usability', 'healthcareIntegration', 'privacyCertification', 'requiredDeviceSpecs', 'requiredInfrastructure', 'linkedDevice', 'strategies', 'uptake', 'userConsent', 'version', 'yearDev', 'implementTool', 'provenance', 'developers', 'funding', 'toolDistributor', 'license', 'logicModel', 'BCP', 'bcpInstantiation', 'designFeatures', 'userControl', 'intendedUse', 'interventionDuration', 'interventionGoal', 'psychConstructGeneric', 'psychConstructSpecific', 'targetConstruct', 'condition', 'theory', 'medicalDevice', 'metadata', 'authors', 'contactDetails', 'content', 'ORCID', 'sciDiscipline', 'CoI', 'date', 'developers', 'funding', 'language', 'yearPublication', 'openSource', 'study', 'method', 'analysis', 'eligibilityCrit', 'instrumentReliability', 'instrumentValidity', 'masking', 'matching', 'power', 'preReg', 'randomization', 'recruitment', 'sampleSizeCalc', 'sampling', 'statsAnalysis', 'software', 'codeImpl', 'studyDesign', 'followUps', 'sysRev', 'search', 'keywords', 'yearStudy', 'results', 'acceptability', 'descriptives', 'effectSize', 'forestPlot', 'missingData', 'networkPlot', 'participantCharacteristics', 'participantFlow', 'posteriorDistr', 'primaryOutcome', 'riskOfBias', 'sample', 'sampleCharacteristics', 'sampleSize', 'secondaryOutcome', 'targetBehaviour', 'usability', 'userEngagement', 'targetPopulation', 'condition', 'targetProblem', 'targetSetting' & 'targetSystemUnit'.

Of these, the following were not used on any utterances: 'database', 'development', 'distribution', 'documentation', 'implementation', 'backend', 'cost', 'frontend', 'implementTool', 'provenance', 'logicModel', 'targetConstruct', 'metadata', 'study', 'method', 'sysRev' & 'search'.

This leaves the following codes: 'userType', 'broadInvolvement', 'country', 'framework', 'appStore', 'adrIndicentReport', 'forDevs', 'forUsers', 'humanInvolvement', 'interoperability', 'OS', 'programmingLang', 'sourceCode', 'tailoring', 'developer', 'user', 'country', 'dataSharing', 'deliveryMode', 'humanInvolvement', 'responsiveDesign', 'sourceCode', 'tailoring', 'usability', 'healthcareIntegration', 'privacyCertification', 'requiredDeviceSpecs', 'requiredInfrastructure', 'linkedDevice', 'strategies', 'uptake', 'userConsent', 'version', 'yearDev', 'developers', 'funding', 'toolDistributor', 'license', 'BCP', 'bcpInstantiation', 'designFeatures', 'userControl', 'intendedUse', 'interventionDuration', 'interventionGoal', 'psychConstructGeneric', 'psychConstructSpecific', 'condition', 'theory', 'medicalDevice', 'authors', 'contactDetails', 'content', 'ORCID', 'sciDiscipline', 'CoI', 'date', 'developers', 'funding', 'language', 'yearPublication', 'openSource', 'analysis', 'eligibilityCrit', 'instrumentReliability', 'instrumentValidity', 'masking', 'matching', 'power', 'preReg', 'randomization', 'recruitment', 'sampleSizeCalc', 'sampling', 'statsAnalysis', 'software', 'codeImpl', 'studyDesign', 'followUps', 'keywords', 'yearStudy', 'results', 'acceptability', 'descriptives', 'effectSize', 'forestPlot', 'missingData', 'networkPlot', 'participantCharacteristics', 'participantFlow', 'posteriorDistr', 'primaryOutcome', 'riskOfBias', 'sample', 'sampleCharacteristics', 'sampleSize', 'secondaryOutcome', 'targetBehaviour', 'usability', 'userEngagement', 'targetPopulation', 'condition', 'targetProblem', 'targetSetting' & 'targetSystemUnit'.

   - Processing code 'userType'. 
   - Processing code 'broadInvolvement'. 
   - Processing code 'country'. 
   - Processing code 'framework'. 
   - Processing code 'appStore'. 
   - Processing code 'adrIndicentReport'. 
   - Processing code 'forDevs'. 
   - Processing code 'forUsers'. 
   - Processing code 'humanInvolvement'. 
   - Processing code 'interoperability'. 
   - Processing code 'OS'. 
   - Processing code 'programmingLang'. 
   - Processing code 'sourceCode'. 
   - Processing code 'tailoring'. 
   - Processing code 'developer'. 
   - Processing code 'user'. 
   - Processing code 'country'. 
   - Processing code 'dataSharing'. 
   - Processing code 'deliveryMode'. 
   - Processing code 'humanInvolvement'. 
   - Processing code 'responsiveDesign'. 
   - Processing code 'sourceCode'. 
   - Processing code 'tailoring'. 
   - Processing code 'usability'. 
   - Processing code 'healthcareIntegration'. 
   - Processing code 'privacyCertification'. 
   - Processing code 'requiredDeviceSpecs'. 
   - Processing code 'requiredInfrastructure'. 
   - Processing code 'linkedDevice'. 
   - Processing code 'strategies'. 
   - Processing code 'uptake'. 
   - Processing code 'userConsent'. 
   - Processing code 'version'. 
   - Processing code 'yearDev'. 
   - Processing code 'developers'. 
   - Processing code 'funding'. 
   - Processing code 'toolDistributor'. 
   - Processing code 'license'. 
   - Processing code 'BCP'. 
   - Processing code 'bcpInstantiation'. 
   - Processing code 'designFeatures'. 
   - Processing code 'userControl'. 
   - Processing code 'intendedUse'. 
   - Processing code 'interventionDuration'. 
   - Processing code 'interventionGoal'. 
   - Processing code 'psychConstructGeneric'. 
   - Processing code 'psychConstructSpecific'. 
   - Processing code 'condition'. 
   - Processing code 'theory'. 
   - Processing code 'medicalDevice'. 
   - Processing code 'authors'. 
   - Processing code 'contactDetails'. 
   - Processing code 'content'. 
   - Processing code 'ORCID'. 
   - Processing code 'sciDiscipline'. 
   - Processing code 'CoI'. 
   - Processing code 'date'. 
   - Processing code 'developers'. 
   - Processing code 'funding'. 
   - Processing code 'language'. 
   - Processing code 'yearPublication'. 
   - Processing code 'openSource'. 
   - Processing code 'analysis'. 
   - Processing code 'eligibilityCrit'. 
   - Processing code 'instrumentReliability'. 
   - Processing code 'instrumentValidity'. 
   - Processing code 'masking'. 
   - Processing code 'matching'. 
   - Processing code 'power'. 
   - Processing code 'preReg'. 
   - Processing code 'randomization'. 
   - Processing code 'recruitment'. 
   - Processing code 'sampleSizeCalc'. 
   - Processing code 'sampling'. 
   - Processing code 'statsAnalysis'. 
   - Processing code 'software'. 
   - Processing code 'codeImpl'. 
   - Processing code 'studyDesign'. 
   - Processing code 'followUps'. 
   - Processing code 'keywords'. 
   - Processing code 'yearStudy'. 
   - Processing code 'results'. 
   - Processing code 'acceptability'. 
   - Processing code 'descriptives'. 
   - Processing code 'effectSize'. 
   - Processing code 'forestPlot'. 
   - Processing code 'missingData'. 
   - Processing code 'networkPlot'. 
   - Processing code 'participantCharacteristics'. 
   - Processing code 'participantFlow'. 
   - Processing code 'posteriorDistr'. 
   - Processing code 'primaryOutcome'. 
   - Processing code 'riskOfBias'. 
   - Processing code 'sample'. 
   - Processing code 'sampleCharacteristics'. 
   - Processing code 'sampleSize'. 
   - Processing code 'secondaryOutcome'. 
   - Processing code 'targetBehaviour'. 
   - Processing code 'usability'. 
   - Processing code 'userEngagement'. 
   - Processing code 'targetPopulation'. 
   - Processing code 'condition'. 
   - Processing code 'targetProblem'. 
   - Processing code 'targetSetting'. 
   - Processing code 'targetSystemUnit'. 

Collected coded fragments with 0 lines of context

userType

path: database>userType


User type – Relevance to determine use cases – (professional, general population, …). – (removed) – (removed) [[database>userType]]

broadInvolvement

path: development>broadInvolvement


Codesign / stakeholder involvement (development and implementation processes) – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[development>broadInvolvement]]

design process/ethos (participatory, user-centred, PPI etc.) – provides insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development – https://hbr.org/2008/06/design-thinking – (removed) – (removed) [[development>broadInvolvement]]

Development process – – e.g. expert-based, participatory – – (removed) – (removed) [[development>broadInvolvement]]

End-user/stakeholder involvement in the technology development (usability and accessibility), tailoring, personalisation, feasibility, acceptability, stakeholder engagement, PPI, co-production, – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 – – (removed) – (removed) [[development>broadInvolvement]]

country

path: development>country


Countries where the tool was developed and tested (that’s probably two separate questions – – Google? – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]]

Country – - – Country where the digital health tool was developed. – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]]

Country-specific – I can imagine that there is a UK-tool that is available in English. So, technically people in the US and many other countries could also use. However, it might be that in the UK-tool there is an explicit referral to NHS-services, which might make the tool less relevant/not usable to non-UK-citizens. – https://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/countrycodes.htm – – (removed) – (removed) [[development>country]]

Evidence origin – The samples among which this evidence has been gather (country, patient group, age, sample size (power?) etc.) – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]] [targetPopulation] [[study>results>participantFlow]]

Geographical scope – To assess relevance in specific contexts. – (regional, national, … – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]] [[development>country]]

framework

path: development>framework


Developmental framework / philosophy (eg MRC/HCI) – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[development>framework]]

appStore

path: distribution>appStore


Availability – Is the intervention available on app-store or similar. – – (removed) – (removed) [[distribution>appStore]]

adrIndicentReport

path: documentation>adrIndicentReport


ADR incident report – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[documentation>adrIndicentReport]]

forDevs

path: documentation>forDevs


Available documentation – To know whether any documentation (e.g., reports, articles, manuals) are available about the tool. This can concern many aspects (e.g., usability, effectiveness). – – (removed) – (removed) [[documentation>forDevs]] [[documentation>forUsers]]

forUsers

path: documentation>forUsers


Available documentation – To know whether any documentation (e.g., reports, articles, manuals) are available about the tool. This can concern many aspects (e.g., usability, effectiveness). – – (removed) – (removed) [[documentation>forDevs]] [[documentation>forUsers]]

humanInvolvement

path: implementation>backend>humanInvolvement


Automation level / degree of human involvement (e.g., health coach, nutrition expert, etc.) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687 https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]] [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

Level of human involvement – Same as above – Consort eHealth – – [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

physician assisted or not telemedicine(?) – Option to request professional feedback or even distant clinical assessment – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

interoperability

path: implementation>backend>interoperability


Interoperability (e.g., connection to and interactivity with other regional, national, or international information systems) – For digital health to be effective, multiple levels of interoperability are required, from the purely technical through to ensuring shared understandings, right up to the organizational and system levels. Whether a tool makes use of interoperability standards (e.g, HL7, SNOMED) Replicability, generalisability, scalability – The ability of different applications to access, exchange, integrate and cooperatively use data in a coordinated manner through the use of shared application interfaces and standards, within and across organizational, regional and national boundaries, to provide timely and seamless portability of information and optimize health outcomes Global strategy on digital health 2020-2025. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021 (link) https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>interoperability]]

OS

path: implementation>backend>OS


Operating system requirements – To know on which OS the tool can run – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>OS]]

Operating system, Apple, Andoid – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>OS]]

operating systems/ platforms – fundamental information to enable comparison and categorisation – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>OS]]

OS type – Determine possibility of use in specific contexts – (windows, macos, ios, android, …) – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>OS]]

Supported Devices – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>OS]]

System type – Relevance to determine use cases – In the sense of the “System categories” of figure 1 of the WHO document: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/260480 – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>OS]]

programmingLang

path: implementation>backend>programmingLang


Programming language – Replicability, generalisability, scalability Again, context for the DHT Necessary to group tools Relevant to tech developers and scientists – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>programmingLang]]

sourceCode

path: implementation>backend>sourceCode


Reproducibility – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>sourceCode]]

Source code – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>sourceCode]] [[implementation>frontend>sourceCode]]

tailoring

path: implementation>backend>tailoring


Intervention adaptation type (e.g., no adaptation, to individual differences, to temporal changes in individuals’ states) – – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>tailoring]] [[implementation>frontend>tailoring]]

developer

path: implementation>cost>developer


Cost – Replicability, generalisability, scalability Funders will be interested Transparency – https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>cost>developer]]

Intervention costs – Same as above/implementation – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>cost>developer]]

user

path: implementation>cost>user


monetization strategies – important to facilitate assessment of ethical considerations – https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1007/s10676-020-09576-6 – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>cost>user]]

country

path: development>country


Countries where the tool was developed and tested (that’s probably two separate questions – – Google? – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]]

Country – - – Country where the digital health tool was developed. – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]]

Country-specific – I can imagine that there is a UK-tool that is available in English. So, technically people in the US and many other countries could also use. However, it might be that in the UK-tool there is an explicit referral to NHS-services, which might make the tool less relevant/not usable to non-UK-citizens. – https://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/countrycodes.htm – – (removed) – (removed) [[development>country]]

Evidence origin – The samples among which this evidence has been gather (country, patient group, age, sample size (power?) etc.) – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]] [targetPopulation] [[study>results>participantFlow]]

Geographical scope – To assess relevance in specific contexts. – (regional, national, … – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]] [[development>country]]

dataSharing

path: implementation>dataSharing


data management/sharing mechanisms – important to facilitate assessment of privacy and security considerations – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>dataSharing]]

deliveryMode

path: implementation>frontend>deliveryMode


Interaction modality – Relevance for search – (textual, graphical, voice/speech, …) – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Intervention - mode – App, texts, web, combinations, etc. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Intervention - sequential / free – Are there modules that should be completed one after another, or is the interaction free – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

Intervention – composition – For instance, daily messages with motivational messages and webplatform on-demand with tasks. Does the intervention focus on information or does it also require completing tasks. – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

Intervention type – – https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fdgth.2021.754337/full – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Modality: Voice, text, video – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Mode of delivery – - – https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15906.2 Consort eHealth – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Proposed/known implementation – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Technologies – – https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fdgth.2021.754337/full – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Technology platform – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

Technology type Mobile phone app Website Wearable Internet connected health device (e.g., wireless body scale) Conversational agent Sensor systems System health technology (e.g., medical records) Telehealth platforms Smartphone app Wearable Desktop computer Tablet – Replicability, generalisability, scalability Transparency Necessary to classify tools Relevant to users, clinicians etc Different types of technology are appropriate for supporting different behaviours and target populations – https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4368004 https://digital.nhs.uk/developer/guides-and-documentation/introduction-to-healthcare-technology/the-healthcare-tech-ecosystem – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]]

humanInvolvement

path: implementation>backend>humanInvolvement


Automation level / degree of human involvement (e.g., health coach, nutrition expert, etc.) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687 https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]] [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

Level of human involvement – Same as above – Consort eHealth – – [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

physician assisted or not telemedicine(?) – Option to request professional feedback or even distant clinical assessment – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

responsiveDesign

path: implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign


Accessible on multiple digital health tools (e.g. both on smartphone and laptop) – accessibility – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign]]

Device type – Relevance to determine use cases – (wearable, mobile, desktop, …) – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign]]

DHT ID, type, etc… – Identification of DHT – See ENABLE https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/4/e059674 – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign]]

Digital health intervention – - – World Health Organization. (‎2018)‎. Classification of digital health interventions v1.0: a shared language to describe the uses of digital technology for health. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/260480. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign]]

Digital health technology – Helps with key decision on what ‘tools’ is the review about – FDA-2021-D-1128. https://www.fda.gov/medical-devices/digital-health-center-excellence/what-digital-health http://htaglossary.net/health+technology – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign]]

Digital platform – Context for the DHT – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign]]

system features (self-report / intervention types) – fundamental information to enable comparison and categorisation – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>responsiveDesign]]

sourceCode

path: implementation>backend>sourceCode


Reproducibility – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>sourceCode]]

Source code – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>sourceCode]] [[implementation>frontend>sourceCode]]

tailoring

path: implementation>backend>tailoring


Intervention adaptation type (e.g., no adaptation, to individual differences, to temporal changes in individuals’ states) – – – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>backend>tailoring]] [[implementation>frontend>tailoring]]

usability

path: implementation>frontend>usability


Usability – Usability is an important evaluation of digital health tools. It can also define the development stage of the digital health tools. – Assessment on the digital health tool used as intended by users (stability, performance consistency) The “degree to which a product or system can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use” Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>usability]] [[study>results>usability]]

healthcareIntegration

path: implementation>healthcareIntegration


Implementation – – Assessment on the uptake, integration and sustainability of evidence-based digital health tool/intervention for a given context, including policies and practices. Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>uptake]] [[implementation>healthcareIntegration]] [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

privacyCertification

path: implementation>privacyCertification


Data security and privacy (e.g., Cyber Essentials Certificate) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/cyberessentials/overview – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>privacyCertification]]

Data security and privacy (e.g., Cyber Essentials Certificate) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>privacyCertification]]

security mechanisms/certifications – important to facilitate assessment of privacy and security considerations – https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7889823 – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>privacyCertification]]

requiredDeviceSpecs

path: implementation>requiredDeviceSpecs


Device requirements – To know on which devices the tool can run (e.g., mobile phone, smartwatch) – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>requiredDeviceSpecs]]

requiredInfrastructure

path: implementation>requiredInfrastructure


Infrastructure (e.g., electricity, connectivity) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>requiredInfrastructure]]

linkedDevice

path: implementation>requiredInfrastructure>linkedDevice


options – supported, e.g. –peripheral device –fitness equipment – Apple Watch or thread-mill, etc. The app able to collect more detailed data like one-lead ECG or pulse oximetry. – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>requiredInfrastructure>linkedDevice]]

Technical modules – It is important to know whether a tool consists of only a website or is also linked to other technical modules (e.g., a sensor) – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>requiredInfrastructure>linkedDevice]]

strategies

path: implementation>strategies


Implementation indicators – Outcomes and strategies that help implement the DHT within its target setting(s) – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>strategies]]

uptake

path: implementation>uptake


Implementation – – Assessment on the uptake, integration and sustainability of evidence-based digital health tool/intervention for a given context, including policies and practices. Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>uptake]] [[implementation>healthcareIntegration]] [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

userConsent

path: implementation>userConsent


consent mechanisms – important to facilitate assessment of privacy and security considerations – https://informatics.bmj.com/content/27/1/e100128 | https://mcmillan.it/papers/p471-morrison.pdf – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>userConsent]]

version

path: implementation>version


Is the tool still alive (yes/no) – Users/ordinary people will be interested and presumably they only want to search things that still exist – N/A – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>version]]

Version – Exactly what version of the DHT was evaluated – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>version]]

yearDev

path: implementation>yearDev


Year of development – It may influence healthcare professionals’ decision to use or recommend the digital health tool. – Before 2000 Each year after 2000 – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>yearDev]]

developers

path: implementTool>provenance>developers


Developers – - – Identification of digital health tool developers. – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>developers]]

DHT provider – – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[implementTool>provenance>developers]]

funding

path: implementTool>provenance>funding


Funding institution Funding source – From the researchers’ perspective, it is useful to identify that the development of the digital health tools was founded, boosting new projects based on these tools. – [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

Transparency – Organization or government that founded the development of the digital health tool. – – [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

Implementation – – Assessment on the uptake, integration and sustainability of evidence-based digital health tool/intervention for a given context, including policies and practices. Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>uptake]] [[implementation>healthcareIntegration]] [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

Intervention continuation/support from developers – Same as above/implementation – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>funding]]

Who funded the work (development of the tool, study etc) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>funding]]

toolDistributor

path: implementTool>toolDistributor


provider ID, name, etc… – – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[implementTool>toolDistributor]]

license

path: license


Commercial / academic – Transparency – – (removed) – (removed) [license]

Licensing – Determine possibility of use in specific contexts – free, commercial, … – – (removed) – (removed) [license]

Type of license – It can contribute to the use of the digital health tool. – Free and open Non-free – (removed) – (removed) [license]

What licensing did the authors used – – – (removed) – (removed) [license]

BCP

path: logicModel>BCP


Behavior change principles -> Practical Applications -> Determinants – These are separate categories, but I think it is useful to have this as a ‘chain’, because these are what I consider the ‘working mechanisms’ behind the intervention. – I am well aware that while being the most interesting part (imho), it is at the same time the most difficult part. There are tools available to analyze and report interventions like this (https://psyarxiv.com/mzc4u/). I think it is often hard to reverse engineer this (although we did this for a Dutch website together with the developers; https://academic.oup.com/heapro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapro/daab190/6433101). However, this ‘indexing of digital health tools’ could be another nudge for people to be more transparent about their logic behind interventions/tools – a plea which has already been made by WIDER a long time ago, but it still in its infancy (imho). – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>bcpInstantiation]] [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

competition – Any options to compare the user’s success with other users and to compete – - – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

data/self-reporting mechanisms (EMA, DRM etc.) – can provide insight into the nature of reflection entailed in use of a system – https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

designed extrinsic incentives – can provide insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development – https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

designed intrinsic incentives – can provide insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development – https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

DHT use scenario – The type of activities the DHT is intended to be used for – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

Features/components of the intervention – Same as above – Consort eHealth, Pesuasive Systems Design Model – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>bcpInstantiation]]

Included behavior change techniques – Same as above – BCT taxonomy – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

Intervention – components – Describing intervention components in terms of taxonomy with a weight, e.g. 50% goalsetting and 50% reflection, or 20% mindfulness, 20% tips, 60% motivation – Possibly BCT – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

Intervention – composition – For instance, daily messages with motivational messages and webplatform on-demand with tasks. Does the intervention focus on information or does it also require completing tasks. – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

Intervention content (e.g., behaviour change techniques) therapeutical technique, motivational interviewing technique, – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687 https://interventionmapping.com/ – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687 https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]] [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

Logic model of change/effect, conceptual framework – Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency, transferability – https://interventionmapping.com/ – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Specific aims of the tool: Calorie counting Monitoring and tracking blood pressure Getting specific info on the topic Connecting with healthcare professional – – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]]

bcpInstantiation

path: logicModel>bcpInstantiation


Behavior change principles -> Practical Applications -> Determinants – These are separate categories, but I think it is useful to have this as a ‘chain’, because these are what I consider the ‘working mechanisms’ behind the intervention. – I am well aware that while being the most interesting part (imho), it is at the same time the most difficult part. There are tools available to analyze and report interventions like this (https://psyarxiv.com/mzc4u/). I think it is often hard to reverse engineer this (although we did this for a Dutch website together with the developers; https://academic.oup.com/heapro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapro/daab190/6433101). However, this ‘indexing of digital health tools’ could be another nudge for people to be more transparent about their logic behind interventions/tools – a plea which has already been made by WIDER a long time ago, but it still in its infancy (imho). – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>bcpInstantiation]] [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Features/components of the intervention – Same as above – Consort eHealth, Pesuasive Systems Design Model – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>bcpInstantiation]]

designFeatures

path: logicModel>designFeatures


Intervention - sequential / free – Are there modules that should be completed one after another, or is the interaction free – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

Intervention – composition – For instance, daily messages with motivational messages and webplatform on-demand with tasks. Does the intervention focus on information or does it also require completing tasks. – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[implementation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687 https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]] [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

Persuasive tactics applied – To understand how persuasiveness is aimed for – Oinas Kukkonen – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

Setup of intervention – Same as above – e.g. https://www.jmir.org/2012/6/e152/ – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

use of notifications / sampling protocol design – can provide insight into the intended pattern of use of a system – https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>designFeatures]]

userControl

path: logicModel>designFeatures>userControl


Level of restriction on autonomy – – https://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/assets/pdfs/Public-health-ethical-issues.pdf https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26330372/ – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>designFeatures>userControl]]

intendedUse

path: logicModel>intendedUse


Intended use – Same as above – e.g. https://www.jmir.org/2012/6/e152/ – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>intendedUse]]

Intervention – Intended interaction frequency – Enter data or engage with intervention every day, every “event”, every week, once, twice, etc. – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>intendedUse]]

Intervention intensity (time spend in active engagement in intervention) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>intendedUse]]

interventionDuration

path: logicModel>interventionDuration


Duration of intervention – Same as above – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionDuration]]

Intervention - length – If restricted to a specific set of days/weeks, then for how long – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionDuration]]

Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687 https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[logicModel>designFeatures]] [[implementation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[implementation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]

interventionGoal

path: logicModel>interventionGoal


Intervention goal – To know what the original intervention goal(s) was the developers had in mind, which is crucial for deciding whether it can be applied to your situation. – – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionGoal]]

key impact psychological vs somatic – Does the app deal with mental health (like mindfulness or sound therapy) or with the body (like fitness, yoga) – - – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionGoal]]

Need for intervention – Define why the intervention is needed in terms of the most prominent risks of the behaviour intended to change – NA – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionGoal]]

Overall purpose of the tool: Health promotion Disease management – – Probably Susan has a taxonomy for that – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionGoal]] [targetProblem] [targetPopulation]

Tool goal – Definition of the aim a tool would like to achieve – - – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionGoal]]

psychConstructGeneric

path: logicModel>psychConstructGeneric


Behavior change principles -> Practical Applications -> Determinants – These are separate categories, but I think it is useful to have this as a ‘chain’, because these are what I consider the ‘working mechanisms’ behind the intervention. – I am well aware that while being the most interesting part (imho), it is at the same time the most difficult part. There are tools available to analyze and report interventions like this (https://psyarxiv.com/mzc4u/). I think it is often hard to reverse engineer this (although we did this for a Dutch website together with the developers; https://academic.oup.com/heapro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapro/daab190/6433101). However, this ‘indexing of digital health tools’ could be another nudge for people to be more transparent about their logic behind interventions/tools – a plea which has already been made by WIDER a long time ago, but it still in its infancy (imho). – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>bcpInstantiation]] [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Logic model of change/effect, conceptual framework – Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency, transferability – https://interventionmapping.com/ – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Mechanism(s) of action, key ingredients, active ingredients, working mechanisms – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/693/5126198 https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/708/5191211 https://scienceofbehaviorchange.org/method/ https://www.jmir.org/2021/4/e17127 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Target behaviour determinants – - – Factors that influence the behaviour either in a positive or a negative way. Examples: motivation, knowledge – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

psychConstructSpecific

path: logicModel>psychConstructSpecific


Behavior change principles -> Practical Applications -> Determinants – These are separate categories, but I think it is useful to have this as a ‘chain’, because these are what I consider the ‘working mechanisms’ behind the intervention. – I am well aware that while being the most interesting part (imho), it is at the same time the most difficult part. There are tools available to analyze and report interventions like this (https://psyarxiv.com/mzc4u/). I think it is often hard to reverse engineer this (although we did this for a Dutch website together with the developers; https://academic.oup.com/heapro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapro/daab190/6433101). However, this ‘indexing of digital health tools’ could be another nudge for people to be more transparent about their logic behind interventions/tools – a plea which has already been made by WIDER a long time ago, but it still in its infancy (imho). – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>bcpInstantiation]] [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Logic model of change/effect, conceptual framework – Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency, transferability – https://interventionmapping.com/ – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>BCP]] [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Mechanism(s) of action, key ingredients, active ingredients, working mechanisms – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/693/5126198 https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/708/5191211 https://scienceofbehaviorchange.org/method/ https://www.jmir.org/2021/4/e17127 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

Target behaviour determinants – - – Factors that influence the behaviour either in a positive or a negative way. Examples: motivation, knowledge – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]

condition

path: logicModel>targetConstruct>condition


condition – If an app claims it is evidence-based, there should be indication conditions specified. If not, yet it is important to note the exact nosology – https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article/42/34/3227/6358713 – (removed) – (removed) [[targetPopulation>condition]]

condition – specified, e.g. –coronary heart disease –hypertension –diabetes type 2 –obesity – Among the behavior-related diseases there are several most prevalent and demanding special attention – see above – (removed) – (removed) [[targetPopulation>condition]]

Condition/disease that they target COPD Depression T2D Overweight/ obesity Etc – I realized that my justifications are shit so I stopped including them from here onwards – I guess for all I picked things that I think are useful and I would like to search by them – I’m sure there is some medical dictionary that has the main ones – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation] [[logicModel>targetConstruct>condition]]

theory

path: logicModel>theory


Behaviour change model/framework/theory – Successful digital health interventions are underpinned by model/framework/theory – A set of concepts and/or statements which specify how phenomena relate to each other, providing an organizing description of a system that accounts for what is known, and explains and predicts phenomena (Davis, Campbell, Hildon, Hobbs, & Michie, 2015). In the context of behaviour change, theories seek to explain why, when and how a behaviour does or does not occur, and identify sources of influence to be targeted in order to alter behaviour. Examples: COM-B model, Self-determination theory, Behaviour Change Wheel – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>theory]]

Theoretical framework (underpinning the intervention) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency – https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016939 – – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>theory]]

underlying theoretical frameworks (SDT etc.) – enables a sense of intended application and impact – https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/positive-computing – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>theory]]

medicalDevice

path: medicalDevice


Medical device approval – - – A digital health tool classified and approved as a medical device by regulatory agency (e.g. FDA) – (removed) – (removed) [medicalDevice]

authors

path: metadata>authors


Author – Identifiability – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>authors]]

Responsible for tool – To know who ‘owns it’ – for example to reach out and contact that company/institute or to assess potential CoI – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>authors]]

contactDetails

path: metadata>authors>contactDetails


Do we have contact with the authors? – Not necessary to list it in the database but to ensure that it can be passed on to people who want to collaborate with them? – N/A – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>authors>contactDetails]]

content

path: metadata>authors>content


Responsible for content – To know who is responsible for the content, as this might potentially differ from the owner. – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>authors>content]]

ORCID

path: metadata>authors>ORCID


ORCID – Identifiability – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>authors>ORCID]]

sciDiscipline

path: metadata>authors>sciDiscipline


Primary research field of the author(s) (e.g., psychologist, UX researcher, designer, health practitioner, etc.) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>authors>sciDiscipline]]

CoI

path: metadata>CoI


Conflicts of interest – Whether any study authors have relevant conflicts of interest to consider Transparency – – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>CoI]]

date

path: metadata>date


Date – Identifiability – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>date]]

developers

path: implementTool>provenance>developers


Developers – - – Identification of digital health tool developers. – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>developers]]

DHT provider – – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[implementTool>provenance>developers]]

funding

path: implementTool>provenance>funding


Funding institution Funding source – From the researchers’ perspective, it is useful to identify that the development of the digital health tools was founded, boosting new projects based on these tools. – [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

Transparency – Organization or government that founded the development of the digital health tool. – – [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

Implementation – – Assessment on the uptake, integration and sustainability of evidence-based digital health tool/intervention for a given context, including policies and practices. Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>uptake]] [[implementation>healthcareIntegration]] [[implementTool>provenance>funding]]

Intervention continuation/support from developers – Same as above/implementation – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>funding]]

Who funded the work (development of the tool, study etc) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>funding]]

language

path: metadata>language


Content language – To know whether this matches with your potential target group – https://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/language_code.htm – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>language]]

Language their content is in (user facing content) – – Google must have a good list ☺ – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>language]]

yearPublication

path: metadata>yearPublication


Year of publication – Identifiability – – (removed) – (removed) [[metadata>yearPublication]]

openSource

path: openSource


What is open? Data Code Design features Content – – – (removed) – (removed) [openSource]

analysis

path: method>analysis


Analysis plan – How data were analysed, how missing data were treated, etc, for informing how to interpret the results – – (removed) – (removed) [[method>analysis]]

Analytical approach (e.g., thematic analysis, framework analysis, analysis of variance, linear regression, logistic regression) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>analysis]]

eligibilityCrit

path: study>method>eligibilityCrit


Participant inclusion/exclusion criteria – Who was and wasn’t eligible to be included in the study – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>eligibilityCrit]]

instrumentReliability

path: study>method>instrumentReliability


Methdological integrity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Methodological fidelity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Quality indicators – standardized, evidence-based, and measurable items for monitoring and evaluating the quality of healthcare performance – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Quality of evidence – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Research instruments (including validity and reliability) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

instrumentValidity

path: study>method>instrumentValidity


Methdological integrity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Methodological fidelity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Quality indicators – standardized, evidence-based, and measurable items for monitoring and evaluating the quality of healthcare performance – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Quality of evidence – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Research instruments (including validity and reliability) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

masking

path: study>method>masking


Bias – blinding – Risk of bias due to non-blinding – RoB – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>masking]]

Risk of bias – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>masking]] [[study>method>matching]] [[study>method>randomization]] [[study>results>riskOfBias]]

matching

path: study>method>matching


Bias – performance – Risk of bias due to groups being treated differently due to trial procedures (i.e. not related to interventions) – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>matching]]

Risk of bias – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>masking]] [[study>method>matching]] [[study>method>randomization]] [[study>results>riskOfBias]]

power

path: study>method>power


Sample size and statistical power (expected) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – Chao Zhang – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>sampleSizeCalc]] [[study>method>power]]

preReg

path: study>method>preReg


Pre-registration or no pre-registration – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>preReg]]

Study – protocol – Was a protocol made available prior to enrollment – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>preReg]]

Study – registration – Was the trial registered – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>preReg]]

Study – SAP – Was a statistical analysis plan made available prior to enrollment – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>preReg]]

randomization

path: study>method>randomization


Bias – random allocation – Risk of bias due to allocation of interventions – Risk of Bias Tool (version 1 is probably better than 2) – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>randomization]]

Risk of bias – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>masking]] [[study>method>matching]] [[study>method>randomization]] [[study>results>riskOfBias]]

recruitment

path: study>method>recruitment


Recruitment strategy (e.g., volunteer, paid, part of existing intervention program) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>recruitment]]

sampleSizeCalc

path: study>method>sampleSizeCalc


Sample size and statistical power (expected) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – Chao Zhang – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>sampleSizeCalc]] [[study>method>power]]

sampling

path: study>method>sampling


Methdological integrity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Methodological fidelity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Quality indicators – standardized, evidence-based, and measurable items for monitoring and evaluating the quality of healthcare performance – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Quality of evidence – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Sampling strategy (e.g., probability sampling, non-probability sampling), snowball, convenient, theoretical – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>sampling]]

statsAnalysis

path: study>method>statsAnalysis


Statistical Analysis – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>statsAnalysis]]

software

path: study>method>statsAnalysis>software


Statistical software, SPSS, Stata, R – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>statsAnalysis>software]]

codeImpl

path: study>method>statsAnalysis>software>codeImpl


Statistical code – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>statsAnalysis>software>codeImpl]]

studyDesign

path: study>method>studyDesign


level of evidence –class of evidence – If there is some scientific evidence provided, there should be strength of evidence: original articles, meta-analyses, reviews, clinical guidelines. Also, some behavior interventions are marked within clinical guidelines with levels and classes – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK195656/ – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>results>effectSize]]

Methdological integrity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Methodological fidelity – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Process evaluation (where appropriate) – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]]

Quality indicators – standardized, evidence-based, and measurable items for monitoring and evaluating the quality of healthcare performance – See ENABLE – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Quality of evidence – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>method>sampling]] [[study>method>instrumentValidity]] [[study>method>instrumentReliability]]

Research method (e.g., survey, experiment, interviews, focus groups, observation) – Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers!) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]]

Studies used for evaluation – Assuming that we want to build an index/database of tools/interventions, it might be that some interventions are studied multiple times, reported in different papers. – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]]

Study design: Randomised controlled trial Cohort study Case-control study Questionnaire Interview Focus group Think-aloud Usability study Natural experiment (e.g., experimental, cross-sectional, longitudinal, case study, comparative) qualitative, pilot, development, RCT, Multi-phase optimisation strategy (MOST), – An appropriate study design needs to be used to answer the research question Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency, transferability To understand how the DHT was evaluated Digital health tools are complex interventions, combining quantitative and qualitative research might be relevant – https://sti.bmj.com/content/76/4/244 https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/gynecology_obstetrics/pdfs/medstudent/rtc2014/Epi%20Study%20Design%20and%20Exploratory%20Analyses_abb.pdf Randomized controlled trial Qualitative study Mixed-methods study Cross sectional study https://www.cebm.ox.ac.uk/resources/ebm-tools/study-designs – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]]

Type of evidence – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]]

followUps

path: study>method>studyDesign>followUps


Results – follow-up interval – Length between follow-up and randomisation – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign>followUps]]

keywords

path: study>method>studyDesign>sysRev>search>keywords


Search Keywords/Strategies – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign>sysRev>search>keywords]]

yearStudy

path: study>method>yearStudy


Year of study – Context of when the evaluation was conducted – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>yearStudy]]

results

path: study>results


Data – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results]]

data gathered – fundamental information to enable comparison and categorisation – https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results]]

acceptability

path: study>results>acceptability


user acceptance metrics/outcomes – enables insight into how developers weigh and define the success of their tools – https://www.jmir.org/2020/7/e17256/ – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>acceptability]]

descriptives

path: study>results>descriptives


Results - baseline outcome – Outcome measure at baseline in each group (including variance) – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>descriptives]]

Results – follow-up outcome – Outcome measure at each follow-up in each group (including variance) – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>descriptives]]

effectSize

path: study>results>effectSize


Effect size and measure of precision (e.g., confidence interval) – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>effectSize]]

Effectiveness – – Assessment on the digital health tool/intervention achieved the intended results in a non-research (uncontrolled) setting (changes in outcome: system performance/health) Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>effectSize]]

Evidence Evidence of effectiveness Evidence of iteration / transparency of development – The different types of evidence that support the claim of a tool (e.g., RCT, prospective cohort study) Whether there is evidence of the DHT’s effectiveness As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>effectSize]]

level of evidence –class of evidence – If there is some scientific evidence provided, there should be strength of evidence: original articles, meta-analyses, reviews, clinical guidelines. Also, some behavior interventions are marked within clinical guidelines with levels and classes – https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK195656/ – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>studyDesign]] [[study>results>effectSize]]

Primary outcome comparison – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>effectSize]]

forestPlot

path: study>results>forestPlot


Forest Plot – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>forestPlot]]

missingData

path: study>results>missingData


Bias – attrition – Risk of bias due to missing data – RoB – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>missingData]]

Results – attrition – Percentage missing data – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>missingData]]

Results – systematic attrition – Baseline variables which are associated with missingness – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>missingData]]

networkPlot

path: study>results>networkPlot


Network Plot – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>networkPlot]]

participantCharacteristics

path: study>results>participantCharacteristics


Participant characteristics – Who the evaluation was conducted among – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>participantCharacteristics]]

participantFlow

path: study>results>participantFlow


CONSORT chart – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>participantFlow]]

Evidence origin – The samples among which this evidence has been gather (country, patient group, age, sample size (power?) etc.) – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]] [targetPopulation] [[study>results>participantFlow]]

posteriorDistr

path: study>results>posteriorDistr


Results – Posterior distribution of effect estimate from regression – Distribution parameters for posterior distribution of adjusted estimate (incidence rate ratio, odds ratio, etc.) – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>posteriorDistr]]

primaryOutcome

path: study>results>primaryOutcome


Primary outcome measure psychopathology, quality of life, – To understand what the evidence of effectiveness is for Replicability, generalisability, scalability As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>primaryOutcome]]

Results – outcome measure definition – Exact definition of outcome measure, including units, intervals , etc. – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>primaryOutcome]]

riskOfBias

path: study>results>riskOfBias


Risk of bias – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>method>masking]] [[study>method>matching]] [[study>method>randomization]] [[study>results>riskOfBias]]

sample

path: study>results>sample


Study population – Description of the population recruited to the study and in which ways it is different from the target population. – NA – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>sample]]

sampleCharacteristics

path: study>results>sampleCharacteristics


Sample characteristics – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>sampleCharacteristics]]

sampleSize

path: study>results>sampleSize


Results – sample size – Number of participants in each group – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>sampleSize]]

secondaryOutcome

path: study>results>secondaryOutcome


Secondary outcome comparison – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>secondaryOutcome]]

Secondary outcome(s) including adverse events/clinical safety, acceptability, feasibility, – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>secondaryOutcome]]

targetBehaviour

path: study>results>targetBehaviour


Health behaviour targeting (can be multiple ones that are selected) Smoking Healthy eating Physical activity Medication adherence All the other usual ones – Necessary to group health behaviours Relevant to pretty much everyone – WHO probably has a good list – – (removed) – (removed) [targetBehaviour]

Health Goal – Relevance for search – (prevention, deal with specific health issue/disease, …) – (removed) – (removed) [targetBehaviour] [targetPopulation]

Measure of behaviour (proxy) – The behavioural outcome used to evaluate if the intervention worked as intended, e.g. weekly consumption, quit attempts, minutes of physical activity, days sedentary. – Some behavioural domains have core outcome sets. But these are not well established. – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>targetBehaviour]]

Target behaviour(s) cognitions, emotions, symptoms, coping strategies Physical activity Weight loss Nutrition Smoking Medication adherence Attendance at healthcare appointments Sleep – Replicability, generalisability, scalability In terms of the specific behavioural pattern that is intended to change, e.g. heavy drinking at parties, smoking during pregnancy, active transportation. Not in terms of the outcomes in a trial. To know what the original target behaviour(s) was the developers had in mind, which is crucial for deciding whether it can be applied to your situation. Common behaviours which can be targeted by digital health tools, in order to improve individual and population health – Any behaviour that has been chosen for change. A behaviour is anything a person does in response to internal or external events. Actions may be overt (motor or verbal) and directly measurable or, covert (activities not viewable but involving voluntary muscles) and indirectly measurable; behaviours are physical events that occur in the body and are controlled by the brain (Davis, Campbell, Hildon, Hobbs, & Michie, 2015). Examples: medication adherence, physical activity, smoking cessation See BCIO ontology https://doi:10.1038/s41562-018-0511-4 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4511598/ https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08870446.2017.1336240 – – (removed) – (removed) [targetBehaviour]

usability

path: implementation>frontend>usability


Usability – Usability is an important evaluation of digital health tools. It can also define the development stage of the digital health tools. – Assessment on the digital health tool used as intended by users (stability, performance consistency) The “degree to which a product or system can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use” Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>frontend>usability]] [[study>results>usability]]

userEngagement

path: study>results>userEngagement


engagement metrics/outcomes – enables insight into how developers weigh and define the success of their tools – https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3234149 – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>userEngagement]]

user experience metrics/outcomes – enables insight into how developers weigh and define the success of their tools – https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/1868914.1868973 – – (removed) – (removed) [[study>results>userEngagement]]

targetPopulation

path: targetPopulation


Age group – To assess relevance in specific contexts. – (children, young adult, ,…) – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

Condition/disease that they target COPD Depression T2D Overweight/ obesity Etc – I realized that my justifications are shit so I stopped including them from here onwards – I guess for all I picked things that I think are useful and I would like to search by them – I’m sure there is some medical dictionary that has the main ones – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation] [[logicModel>targetConstruct>condition]]

Critical care patients – One of the best examples of the safety benefit of digital health is in critical care medicine, in which tele intensive care unit (ICU) programs have been associated with reduced mortality, length of ICU and hospital stay and improved safety. – See critical care telemedicine qualitative evidence synthesis (Review) – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

Disease-related – – – The International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (link) – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

End users End-user population – Distinction among different types of direct end- users (e.g., patients, professionals) – Any person who directly utilizes the technology. Monitoring and evaluating digital health interventions: a practical guide to conducting research and assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

Evidence origin – The samples among which this evidence has been gather (country, patient group, age, sample size (power?) etc.) – - – (removed) – (removed) [[implementation>country]] [targetPopulation] [[study>results>participantFlow]]

health condition targeted – fundamental information to enable comparison and categorisation – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

Health Goal – Relevance for search – (prevention, deal with specific health issue/disease, …) – (removed) – (removed) [targetBehaviour] [targetPopulation]

Healthcare workers – Healthcare practices are increasingly supported by digital health tools such as mobile health (mHealth) – See mHealth technologies to deliver primary healthcare services: a qualitative evidence synthesis (Review) – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

Multimorbid patients – Digital health tools have a potential application for the management of non communicable diseases which are attributed to 71% of all deaths globally (WHO 2020) – See interventions for improving outcomes in patients with multimorbidity in primary care and community settings (Review) – – (removed) – (removed) [targetProblem] [targetPopulation]

Overall purpose of the tool: Health promotion Disease management – – Probably Susan has a taxonomy for that – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionGoal]] [targetProblem] [targetPopulation]

Paediatric patients – Digital health tools might ensure that key health information can be shared appropriately with all those involved in the care of a child. – Neonatology Pediatric Emergency Medicine Perinatology https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/?term=paediatric – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

Population that they target Adults Pregnant woman People with T2D People who identify as… – Again, I would like to search by these things – Some databases may have some lists we could borrow? Probably not exhaustive ones, there may be a tool for chorus singers in rural Cambodia who recently had a stroke and that may not be easy to find on a drop down menu – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

Target health condition / Targeted disease or health problem – – See ENABLE – – – – – (removed) – (removed) [targetProblem] [targetPopulation]

Target population: Men/women Ethnic minorities Older people Young people People with low incomes People will less education People living in rural areas /Target group – Given variety of scopes, this seems like an important entity to include Replicability, generalisability, scalability The population which is targeted, rather than the population included in a study. E.g. students, pregnant women, veterans. Digital health tools should be designed with target populations in mind in order to address their unique needs and preferences To know what the original target group was the developers had in mind, which might be helpful in deciding whether it can be applied to your target group and/or to what extent adaptation is needed. – https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fdgth.2021.754337/full https://methods.sagepub.com/reference/encyc-of-research-design/n108.xml Also need inclusion/exclusion criteria – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation]

condition

path: logicModel>targetConstruct>condition


condition – If an app claims it is evidence-based, there should be indication conditions specified. If not, yet it is important to note the exact nosology – https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article/42/34/3227/6358713 – (removed) – (removed) [[targetPopulation>condition]]

condition – specified, e.g. –coronary heart disease –hypertension –diabetes type 2 –obesity – Among the behavior-related diseases there are several most prevalent and demanding special attention – see above – (removed) – (removed) [[targetPopulation>condition]]

Condition/disease that they target COPD Depression T2D Overweight/ obesity Etc – I realized that my justifications are shit so I stopped including them from here onwards – I guess for all I picked things that I think are useful and I would like to search by them – I’m sure there is some medical dictionary that has the main ones – – (removed) – (removed) [targetPopulation] [[logicModel>targetConstruct>condition]]

targetProblem

path: targetProblem


Clinical field – To understand the origin of the tool – ICD – – [targetProblem]

Multimorbid patients – Digital health tools have a potential application for the management of non communicable diseases which are attributed to 71% of all deaths globally (WHO 2020) – See interventions for improving outcomes in patients with multimorbidity in primary care and community settings (Review) – – (removed) – (removed) [targetProblem] [targetPopulation]

Overall purpose of the tool: Health promotion Disease management – – Probably Susan has a taxonomy for that – (removed) – (removed) [[logicModel>interventionGoal]] [targetProblem] [targetPopulation]

Target health condition / Targeted disease or health problem – – See ENABLE – – – – – (removed) – (removed) [targetProblem] [targetPopulation]

targetSetting

path: targetSetting


Setting home, community, primary care, secondary care – Certain digital health tools are setting-specific Replicability, generalisability, scalability, indentifiability – Inpatient care; long-term centre/nursing home care, community-base care, home care, primary care, outpatient setting, workplace (inspired by the self-management intervention taxonomy) Orrego, C., Ballester, M., Heymans, M., Camus, E., Groene, O., Niño de Guzman, E., Pardo-Hernandez, H., Sunol, R., & COMPAR-EU Group (2021). Talking the same language on patient empowerment: Development and content validation of a taxonomy of self-management interventions for chronic conditions. Health expectations: an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy, 24(5), 1626–1638. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.13303 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489274.1/ – – (removed) – (removed) [targetSetting]

targetSystemUnit

path: targetSystemUnit


Level of intervention (e.g., individual, couple, family, community, population-level) – – – (removed) – (removed) [targetSystemUnit]

Entities: refining the coding (‘recoding’)

We assume that we will have three extraction modules:

  • one for the tool itself, which may end up containing relatively few entities (maybe only name, e.g. “DrinkAware”) (with identifier toolId)
  • one at the level of a specific version/implementation/instantiation of the tool (with identifier instantiationId)
  • one at the level of a scientific study (with identifiers studyId)

We organise entities within these three mdoules by indicating the top-level parent.

###  - implementStrategy, "Implementation Strategy": plans and procedures for implementing / disseminating a tool, so the implementation science stuff

###  - implementTool, "Tool Implementation": stuff that doesn't make up the tool itself, but describes how the tool implemented and disseminated



### Move targetPopulation to be in logic model - or document justification
### for not doing so

### Make a note of the subgroups to think about extra entities (e.g. constructs,
### target pop characteristics, etc)
###
###    constructsToExtract

### Remove metadata

### Explain concept of 'formative entities', that are computed afterwards
### by applying a procedure to multiple descriptive entities.


round1_recoded_source <-
  
  rock::load_source(
    file.path(dataPath, "round-1-entity-results.rock")
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_rename(
    codes = c("funding" = "funder"),
    filter = "provenance>",
    justification = "This code identifier occurred twice; in metadata and in provenance"
  ) |>  
  
  rock::recode_rename(
    codes = c("developer" = "developmentCost"),
    filter = "cost>",
    justification = "This code identifier occurred twice; renaming one of them"
  ) |>  
  
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "appStore",
    newAncestry = "implementation",
    justification = "Parent code ('distribution') was too specific"
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "userType",
    newAncestry = "implementation",
    justification = "Parent code ('database') was too specific"
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "license",
    newAncestry = "instantiation",
    justification = "Specific tool versions each have a specific license"
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "openSource",
    newAncestry = "instantiation",
    justification = "Specific tool versions can each make different parts open."
  ) |>

  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "medicalDevice",
    newAncestry = "implementTool",
    justification = "Having a tool certified as a medical device is a means to implement and disseminate it"
  ) |>

  rock::recode_rename(
    codes = c("development" = "toolDevelopment"),
    justification = "Clearer description of what it contains"
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "metadata",
    newAncestry = "study",
    justification = "These entities relate to a scientific study, not a tool itself"
  ) |>
  
  # rock::recode_addChildCodes(
  #   codes = "instantiation",
  #   childCodes = "funding",
  # ) |>
  
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "developers",
    newAncestry = "instantiation",
    justification = "Every instance of a tool can have different developers"
  ) |>

  rock::recode_move(
    codes = "language",
    newAncestry = "instantiation",
    justification = "This is the language(s) of the tool, this makes it clearer"
  ) |>
  
  ### At this point, we decided on the general structure with three top-level
  ### nodes; see the explanation in the regular text above this R chunk.
  
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("documentation", "implementation", "implementTool",
              "logicModel", "targetPopulation", "targetProblem",
              "targetSetting", "targetSystemUnit", "toolDevelopment"),
    newAncestry = "instantiation",
    justification = paste0("We decided to use three top-level nodes; and ",
                           "almost everything falls under a specific ",
                           "instantiation of a tool.")
  ) |>

  rock::code_source(
    codes = c("tool" = "tool")
  ) |>

  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "tool",
    childCodes = list("toolId" = TRUE)
  ) |>

  ### Tweaking of the top-level node contents

  rock::recode_delete(
    "content",
    justification = paste0("Whether the author also authored the content of ",
                           "tool will be extracted by extracting the authors, ",
                           "the developers, and the owners (the latter two in ",
                           "the 'instantation' node).")
  ) |>

  rock::recode_delete(
    "date",
    justification = paste0("This is duplicated; we already have the year of ",
                           "the study, as well as the year of data collection.")
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_delete(
    codes = c("implementTool", "implementation"),
    justification = "These codes are 'synonyms' of their parent, 'instantiation'",
    silent=TRUE
  ) |>
  
  ###---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ### Recoding to represent legal entities
  ###---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
  rock::code_source(
    codes = c("developers" = "instantiation>legalEntities")
  ) |>
    
  rock::code_source(
    codes = c("Responsible for content" = "owner")
  ) |>

  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("developer", "funder", "toolDistributor", "owner"),
    newAncestry = "legalEntities",
    justification = paste0("")
  ) |>

  rock::recode_rename(
    codes = c("toolDistributor" = "distributor"),
    justification = ""
  ) |>

  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "^developer$",
    childCodes = list("developerId" = TRUE)
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "^developers$",
    childCodes = list("developerId" = TRUE)
  ) |>

  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "owner",
    childCodes = list("ownerId" = TRUE)
  ) |>
 
  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "funder",
    childCodes = list("funderId" = TRUE)
  ) |>
 
  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "distributor",
    childCodes = list("distributorId" = TRUE)
  ) |>

  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("appStore"),
    newAncestry = "distribution",
    justification = paste0("")
  ) |>
    
  ###---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ### Recoding to represent tool instantiation rationale
  ###---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
  rock::code_source(
    codes = c("conceptual framework" = "instantiation>rationale")
  ) |>
   
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("logicModel"),
    newAncestry = "rationale",
    justification = paste0(""),
    silent=FALSE
  ) |>
       
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("targetPopulation", "targetProblem", "targetSetting", "targetSystemUnit"),
    newAncestry = "rationale",
    justification = paste0("")
  ) |>
     
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("logicModel"),
    newAncestry = "rationale",
    justification = paste0("")
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_delete(
    codes = c("userType"),
    justification = "This is subsumed by 'rationale>targetPopulation'",
    silent=TRUE
  ) |>
    
  ###---------------------------------------------------------------------------
  ### Recoding to represent tool instantiation distribution
  ###---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
  rock::code_source(
    codes = c("app-store" = "instantiation>distribution")
  ) |>
        
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("country"),
    newAncestry = "distribution",
    justification = paste0("")
  ) |>
  
  ###   - Create code for 'distribution'
  ###   - Move 'country' in the root to 'distribution'
  ###   - Delete 'country' in toolDevelopment (will go into distribution)

  
  
  rock::recode_rename(
    codes = c("toolDevelopment" = "developmentProcess"),
    justification = "More accurate description"
  ) |>
      
  rock::recode_delete(
    codes = c("openSource"),
    justification = "Whether the tool is open source will be derived from the license, which is already an entity",
    silent=TRUE
  ) |>
          
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("language"),
    newAncestry = "frontend",
    justification = paste0("More accurately expresses that this is the language of the front-end")
  ) |>  
            
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("healthCareIntegration"),
    newAncestry = "frontend",
    justification = paste0("Clustered together with other entities relating to distribution")
  ) |>
  
  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "distribution",
    childCodes = list("distributionSetting" = TRUE),
    justification = "To capture the setting where this tool instantiation is distributed"
  ) |>  
    
  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "instantiation",
    childCodes = list("externalRequirements" = TRUE)
  ) |>
              
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("requiredInfrastructure", "requiredDeviceSpecs"),
    newAncestry = "externalRequirements",
    justification = paste0("Together express the external requirements of the tool")
  ) |>
                 
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("yearDev"),
    newAncestry = "developmentProcess",
    justification = paste0("Sensible organisation")
  ) |> 

  rock::code_source(
    codes = c("privacy" = "securityPrivacy"),
    justification = "To cluster together entities relating to security and privacy"
  ) |>

  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("userConsent", "privacyCertification"),
    newAncestry = "securityPrivacy",
    justification = paste0("Part of security and privacy characteristics")
  ) |>
        
  rock::recode_addChildCodes(
    codes = "instantiation",
    childCodes = list("safety" = TRUE),
    justification = "To cluster together entities relating to safety"
  ) |>
              
  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("adrIndicentReport"),
    newAncestry = "safety",
    justification = paste0("Part of safety characteristics")
  ) |>
    
  rock::recode_rename(
    codes = c("strategies" = "distributionStrategies"),
    justification = "More accurate description"
  ) |>

  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("distributionStrategies"),
    newAncestry = "distribution",
    justification = paste0("Part of distribution characteristics")
  ) |>  

  ### To do:
  ###
  ###   V Rename toolDevelopment to developmentProcess
  ###   V Delete openSource - > will be a derived entity (from license)
  ###   V Move 'language' to 'frontend'
  ###   V Move healthCareIntegration to 'distribution'
  ###   V Create child code 'distributionSetting' within 'distribution'
  ###   V Create code for "externalRequirements"
  ###   V Move "requiredInfrastructure" and "requiredDeviceSpecs" to "externalRequirements"
  ###   V Move "yearDev" to "developmentProcess"
  ###   V Create code for "securityPrivacy"
  ###   V Move "userConsent" to "securityPrivacy"
  ###   V Create code for "safety"
  ###   V Move adrIncidentReport to "safety"
  ###   V Rename "strategies" to "distributionStrategies"
  ###   V Move "distributionStrategies" to "distribution"

  rock::recode_rename(
    codes = c("sourceCode" = "sourceCodeRepoLink"),
    justification = "More accurate description"
  ) |>

  rock::recode_move(
    codes = c("healthcareIntegration"),
    newAncestry = "distribution",
    justification = paste0("Part of distribution characteristics")
  ) |>  

  ###   V rename sourceCode to sourceCodeRepoLink
  ###   V move healthcareIntegration to distribution

  
  ###---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  rock::write_source(
    file.path(dataPath, "round-1-entity-results-recoded.rock"),
    preventOverwriting = FALSE
  );
Moving all occurrences of code 'logicModel' to new ancestry 'rationale>'.
Out of the 204 utterances in the provided source, 204 are selected by the filter, 35 of which contain the code text.
Using regular expression '(\s?\[\[)([a-zA-Z0-9_>]*>)?(logicModel>?[a-zA-Z0-9_>]*\]\])'.
--------PRE: Behavior change principles -> Practical Applications -> Determinants -- These are separate categories, but I think it is useful to have this as a ‘chain’, because these are what I consider the ‘working mechanisms’ behind the intervention. -- I am well aware that while being the most interesting part (imho), it is at the same time the most difficult part. There are tools available to analyze and report interventions like this (https://psyarxiv.com/mzc4u/). I think it is often hard to reverse engineer this (although we did this for a Dutch website together with the developers; https://academic.oup.com/heapro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapro/daab190/6433101). However, this ‘indexing of digital health tools’ could be another nudge for people to be more transparent about their logic behind interventions/tools – a plea which has already been made by WIDER a long time ago, but it still in its infancy (imho). -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]] [[instantiation>logicModel>bcpInstantiation]] [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>legalEntities]]
       POST: Behavior change principles -> Practical Applications -> Determinants -- These are separate categories, but I think it is useful to have this as a ‘chain’, because these are what I consider the ‘working mechanisms’ behind the intervention. -- I am well aware that while being the most interesting part (imho), it is at the same time the most difficult part. There are tools available to analyze and report interventions like this (https://psyarxiv.com/mzc4u/). I think it is often hard to reverse engineer this (although we did this for a Dutch website together with the developers; https://academic.oup.com/heapro/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapro/daab190/6433101). However, this ‘indexing of digital health tools’ could be another nudge for people to be more transparent about their logic behind interventions/tools – a plea which has already been made by WIDER a long time ago, but it still in its infancy (imho). -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]] [[rationale>logicModel>bcpInstantiation]] [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>legalEntities]]
--------PRE: Behaviour change model/framework/theory -- Successful digital health interventions are underpinned by model/framework/theory -- A set of concepts and/or statements which specify how phenomena relate to each other, providing an organizing description of a system that accounts for what is known, and explains and predicts phenomena (Davis, Campbell, Hildon, Hobbs, & Michie, 2015). In the context of behaviour change, theories seek to explain why, when and how a behaviour does or does not occur, and identify sources of influence to be targeted in order to alter behaviour.    Examples: COM-B model, Self-determination theory, Behaviour Change Wheel -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>theory]]
       POST: Behaviour change model/framework/theory -- Successful digital health interventions are underpinned by model/framework/theory -- A set of concepts and/or statements which specify how phenomena relate to each other, providing an organizing description of a system that accounts for what is known, and explains and predicts phenomena (Davis, Campbell, Hildon, Hobbs, & Michie, 2015). In the context of behaviour change, theories seek to explain why, when and how a behaviour does or does not occur, and identify sources of influence to be targeted in order to alter behaviour.    Examples: COM-B model, Self-determination theory, Behaviour Change Wheel -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>theory]]
--------PRE: competition -- Any options to compare the user’s success with other users and to compete -- - -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: competition -- Any options to compare the user’s success with other users and to compete -- - -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: Condition/disease that they target   COPD    Depression    T2D    Overweight/ obesity    Etc -- I realized that my justifications are shit so I stopped including them from here onwards – I guess for all I picked things that I think are useful and I would like to search by them -- I’m sure there is some medical dictionary that has the main ones --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>targetPopulation]]  [[instantiation>logicModel>targetConstruct>condition]]
       POST: Condition/disease that they target   COPD    Depression    T2D    Overweight/ obesity    Etc -- I realized that my justifications are shit so I stopped including them from here onwards – I guess for all I picked things that I think are useful and I would like to search by them -- I’m sure there is some medical dictionary that has the main ones --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>targetPopulation]]  [[rationale>logicModel>targetConstruct>condition]]
--------PRE: data/self-reporting mechanisms (EMA, DRM etc.) -- can provide insight into the nature of reflection entailed in use of a system -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: data/self-reporting mechanisms (EMA, DRM etc.) -- can provide insight into the nature of reflection entailed in use of a system -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: designed extrinsic incentives -- can provide insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: designed extrinsic incentives -- can provide insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: designed intrinsic incentives -- can provide insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: designed intrinsic incentives -- can provide insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: DHT use scenario -- The type of activities the DHT is intended to be used for -- See ENABLE -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: DHT use scenario -- The type of activities the DHT is intended to be used for -- See ENABLE -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: Duration of intervention -- Same as above --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionDuration]]
       POST: Duration of intervention -- Same as above --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>interventionDuration]]
--------PRE: Features/components of the intervention -- Same as above -- Consort eHealth, Pesuasive Systems Design Model --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]] [[instantiation>logicModel>bcpInstantiation]]
       POST: Features/components of the intervention -- Same as above -- Consort eHealth, Pesuasive Systems Design Model --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]] [[rationale>logicModel>bcpInstantiation]]
--------PRE: Included behavior change techniques -- Same as above -- BCT taxonomy -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: Included behavior change techniques -- Same as above -- BCT taxonomy -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: Intended use -- Same as above -- e.g. https://www.jmir.org/2012/6/e152/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>intendedUse]]
       POST: Intended use -- Same as above -- e.g. https://www.jmir.org/2012/6/e152/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>intendedUse]]
--------PRE: Intervention - length -- If restricted to a specific set of days/weeks, then for how long --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionDuration]]
       POST: Intervention - length -- If restricted to a specific set of days/weeks, then for how long --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>interventionDuration]]
--------PRE: Intervention - sequential / free -- Are there modules that should be completed one after another, or is the interaction free --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[instantiation>logicModel>designFeatures]]
       POST: Intervention - sequential / free -- Are there modules that should be completed one after another, or is the interaction free --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures]]
--------PRE: Intervention – components -- Describing intervention components in terms of taxonomy with a weight, e.g. 50% goalsetting and 50% reflection, or 20% mindfulness, 20% tips, 60% motivation -- Possibly BCT -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: Intervention – components -- Describing intervention components in terms of taxonomy with a weight, e.g. 50% goalsetting and 50% reflection, or 20% mindfulness, 20% tips, 60% motivation -- Possibly BCT -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: Intervention – composition -- For instance, daily messages with motivational messages and webplatform on-demand with tasks. Does the intervention focus on information or does it also require completing tasks. --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]] [[instantiation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[instantiation>logicModel>designFeatures]]
       POST: Intervention – composition -- For instance, daily messages with motivational messages and webplatform on-demand with tasks. Does the intervention focus on information or does it also require completing tasks. --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]] [[instantiation>frontend>deliveryMode]] [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures]]
--------PRE: Intervention – Intended interaction frequency -- Enter data or engage with intervention every day, every “event”, every week, once, twice, etc. --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>intendedUse]]
       POST: Intervention – Intended interaction frequency -- Enter data or engage with intervention every day, every “event”, every week, once, twice, etc. --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>intendedUse]]
--------PRE: Intervention content (e.g., behaviour change techniques)  therapeutical technique, motivational interviewing technique, -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability -- https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6    https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687    https://interventionmapping.com/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]]
       POST: Intervention content (e.g., behaviour change techniques)  therapeutical technique, motivational interviewing technique, -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability -- https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6    https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687    https://interventionmapping.com/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]]
--------PRE: Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability -- https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687    https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125     https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]] [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[instantiation>logicModel>designFeatures]] [[instantiation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]
       POST: Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability -- https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687    https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125     https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]] [[rationale>logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures]] [[instantiation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>frontend>humanInvolvement]]
--------PRE: Intervention goal -- To know what the original intervention goal(s) was the developers had in mind, which is crucial for deciding whether it can be applied to your situation. --  --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionGoal]] [[instantiation>legalEntities]]
       POST: Intervention goal -- To know what the original intervention goal(s) was the developers had in mind, which is crucial for deciding whether it can be applied to your situation. --  --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>interventionGoal]] [[instantiation>legalEntities]]
--------PRE: Intervention intensity (time spend in active engagement in intervention) -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>intendedUse]]
       POST: Intervention intensity (time spend in active engagement in intervention) -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>intendedUse]]
--------PRE: key impact  psychological  vs  somatic -- Does the app deal with mental health (like mindfulness or sound therapy) or with the body (like fitness, yoga) -- - -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionGoal]]
       POST: key impact  psychological  vs  somatic -- Does the app deal with mental health (like mindfulness or sound therapy) or with the body (like fitness, yoga) -- - -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>interventionGoal]]
--------PRE: Level of restriction on autonomy --  -- https://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/assets/pdfs/Public-health-ethical-issues.pdf    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26330372/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>designFeatures>userControl]]
       POST: Level of restriction on autonomy --  -- https://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/assets/pdfs/Public-health-ethical-issues.pdf    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26330372/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures>userControl]]
--------PRE: Logic model of change/effect, conceptual framework -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency, transferability -- https://interventionmapping.com/ -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]] [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]] [[instantiation>rationale]]
       POST: Logic model of change/effect, conceptual framework -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency, transferability -- https://interventionmapping.com/ -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]] [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]] [[instantiation>rationale]]
--------PRE: Mechanism(s) of action, key ingredients, active ingredients, working mechanisms -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability -- https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/693/5126198    https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/708/5191211     https://scienceofbehaviorchange.org/method/    https://www.jmir.org/2021/4/e17127 --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]
       POST: Mechanism(s) of action, key ingredients, active ingredients, working mechanisms -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability -- https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/693/5126198    https://academic.oup.com/abm/article/53/8/708/5191211     https://scienceofbehaviorchange.org/method/    https://www.jmir.org/2021/4/e17127 --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]
--------PRE: Need for intervention -- Define why the intervention is needed in terms of the most prominent risks of the behaviour intended to change -- NA --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionGoal]]
       POST: Need for intervention -- Define why the intervention is needed in terms of the most prominent risks of the behaviour intended to change -- NA --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>interventionGoal]]
--------PRE: Overall purpose of the tool:  Health promotion    Disease management --  -- Probably Susan has a taxonomy for that -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionGoal]] [[instantiation>targetProblem]] [[instantiation>targetPopulation]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]]
       POST: Overall purpose of the tool:  Health promotion    Disease management --  -- Probably Susan has a taxonomy for that -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>interventionGoal]] [[instantiation>targetProblem]] [[instantiation>targetPopulation]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]]
--------PRE: Persuasive tactics applied -- To understand how persuasiveness is aimed for -- Oinas Kukkonen --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>designFeatures]]
       POST: Persuasive tactics applied -- To understand how persuasiveness is aimed for -- Oinas Kukkonen --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures]]
--------PRE: Setup of intervention -- Same as above -- e.g. https://www.jmir.org/2012/6/e152/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>designFeatures]]
       POST: Setup of intervention -- Same as above -- e.g. https://www.jmir.org/2012/6/e152/ --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures]]
--------PRE: Specific aims of the tool:  Calorie counting     Monitoring and tracking blood pressure    Getting specific info on the topic    Connecting with healthcare professional --  --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>BCP]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]]
       POST: Specific aims of the tool:  Calorie counting     Monitoring and tracking blood pressure    Getting specific info on the topic    Connecting with healthcare professional --  --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]]
--------PRE: Target behaviour determinants -- - -- Factors that influence the behaviour either in a positive or a negative way.    Examples: motivation, knowledge --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[instantiation>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]
       POST: Target behaviour determinants -- - -- Factors that influence the behaviour either in a positive or a negative way.    Examples: motivation, knowledge --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructGeneric]] [[rationale>logicModel>psychConstructSpecific]]
--------PRE: Theoretical framework (underpinning the intervention) -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency -- https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016939 --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>theory]]
       POST: Theoretical framework (underpinning the intervention) -- Replicability, generalisability, scalability, transparency -- https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016939 --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>theory]]
--------PRE: Tool goal -- Definition of the aim a tool would like to achieve -- - --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>interventionGoal]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]]
       POST: Tool goal -- Definition of the aim a tool would like to achieve -- - --  -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>interventionGoal]] [[tool]] [[tool>toolId]]
--------PRE: underlying theoretical frameworks (SDT etc.) -- enables a sense of intended application and impact -- https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/positive-computing -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>theory]]
       POST: underlying theoretical frameworks (SDT etc.) -- enables a sense of intended application and impact -- https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/positive-computing -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>theory]]
--------PRE: use of notifications / sampling protocol design -- can provide insight into the intended pattern of use of a system -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false -- (removed) -- (removed) [[instantiation>logicModel>designFeatures]]
       POST: use of notifications / sampling protocol design -- can provide insight into the intended pattern of use of a system -- https://academic.oup.com/iwc/article/32/3/257/5897245?login=false -- (removed) -- (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures]]
Moved 35 code instances for code 'logicModel'.

Saved decision and justification '' using the {justifier} package.
### Parse this new source
parsingLog <-
  capture.output(
    round1_recoded_parsed <-
      rock::parse_source(
        file.path(dataPath, "round-1-entity-results-recoded.rock"),
        #round1_recoded_source,
        silent=FALSE
      )
  );
Warning in inductiveCodes_to_tree(inductiveCodes = codeProcessing[[codeRegex]]
$inductiveCodes, : Code 'distributor' does not have a parent I can find!
Warning in inductiveCodes_to_tree(inductiveCodes = codeProcessing[[codeRegex]]
$inductiveCodes, : Code 'funder' does not have a parent I can find!
### Get entity paths
entityPaths <-
  lapply(
    round1_recoded_parsed$inductiveCodeTrees$codes$Get("path"),
    paste,
    collapse = " > "
  );

### Copy entity names to clipboard
#writeClipboard(names(entityPaths));

### Copy entity paths to clipboard
#writeClipboard(unlist(entityPaths));




# grep("psychConstructSpecific", parsingLog);
# parsingLog[660:680]

rock::show_inductive_code_tree(round1_recoded_parsed);

Inductive code tree for codes

%0 1->2 1->70 1->73 1->123 2->3 2->10 2->13 2->14 2->18 2->24 2->27 2->31 2->39 2->45 2->46 2->47 2->66 2->68 2->69 3->4 3->5 3->6 3->7 3->8 3->9 10->11 10->12 14->15 14->16 14->17 18->19 18->20 18->21 18->22 18->23 24->25 24->26 27->28 27->29 29->30 31->32 31->33 31->34 31->35 31->36 31->37 31->38 39->40 39->41 39->42 39->43 43->44 47->48 47->61 47->63 47->64 47->65 48->49 48->50 48->51 48->53 48->54 48->55 48->56 48->57 48->58 48->60 51->52 58->59 61->62 66->67 70->71 70->72 73->74 73->82 73->104 74->75 74->79 74->80 74->81 75->76 75->77 75->78 82->83 82->84 82->85 82->86 82->87 82->88 82->89 82->90 82->91 82->92 82->93 82->94 82->95 82->98 82->103 95->96 96->97 98->99 98->100 100->101 101->102 104->105 104->106 104->107 104->108 104->109 104->110 104->111 104->112 104->113 104->114 104->115 104->116 104->117 104->118 104->119 104->120 104->121 104->122 123->124 1 codes 2 instantiation 3 backend 4 humanInvolvement 5 interoperability 6 OS 7 programmingLang 8 sourceCodeRepoLink 9 tailoring 10 cost 11 developmentCost 12 user 13 dataSharing 14 developmentProcess 15 broadInvolvement 16 framework 17 yearDev 18 distribution 19 appStore 20 country 21 distributionSetting 22 distributionStrategies 23 healthcareIntegration 24 documentation 25 forDevs 26 forUsers 27 externalRequirements 28 requiredDeviceSpecs 29 requiredInfrastructure 30 linkedDevice 31 frontend 32 deliveryMode 33 humanInvolvement 34 responsiveDesign 35 sourceCodeRepoLink 36 tailoring 37 usability 38 language 39 legalEntities 40 developers 41 distributor 42 funder 43 owner 44 ownerId 45 license 46 medicalDevice 47 rationale 48 logicModel 49 BCP 50 bcpInstantiation 51 designFeatures 52 userControl 53 intendedUse 54 interventionDuration 55 interventionGoal 56 psychConstructGeneric 57 psychConstructSpecific 58 targetConstruct 59 condition 60 theory 61 targetPopulation 62 condition 63 targetProblem 64 targetSetting 65 targetSystemUnit 66 safety 67 adrIndicentReport 68 uptake 69 version 70 securityPrivacy 71 privacyCertification 72 userConsent 73 study 74 metadata 75 authors 76 contactDetails 77 ORCID 78 sciDiscipline 79 CoI 80 funding 81 yearPublication 82 method 83 analysis 84 eligibilityCrit 85 instrumentReliability 86 instrumentValidity 87 masking 88 matching 89 power 90 preReg 91 randomization 92 recruitment 93 sampleSizeCalc 94 sampling 95 statsAnalysis 96 software 97 codeImpl 98 studyDesign 99 followUps 100 sysRev 101 search 102 keywords 103 yearStudy 104 results 105 acceptability 106 descriptives 107 effectSize 108 forestPlot 109 missingData 110 networkPlot 111 participantCharacteristics 112 participantFlow 113 posteriorDistr 114 primaryOutcome 115 riskOfBias 116 sample 117 sampleCharacteristics 118 sampleSize 119 secondaryOutcome 120 targetBehaviour 121 usability 122 userEngagement 123 tool 124 toolId
                                 levelName
1   codes                                 
2    ¦--instantiation                     
3    ¦   ¦--backend                       
4    ¦   ¦   ¦--humanInvolvement          
5    ¦   ¦   ¦--interoperability          
6    ¦   ¦   ¦--OS                        
7    ¦   ¦   ¦--programmingLang           
8    ¦   ¦   ¦--sourceCodeRepoLink        
9    ¦   ¦   °--tailoring                 
10   ¦   ¦--cost                          
11   ¦   ¦   ¦--developmentCost           
12   ¦   ¦   °--user                      
13   ¦   ¦--dataSharing                   
14   ¦   ¦--developmentProcess            
15   ¦   ¦   ¦--broadInvolvement          
16   ¦   ¦   ¦--framework                 
17   ¦   ¦   °--yearDev                   
18   ¦   ¦--distribution                  
19   ¦   ¦   ¦--appStore                  
20   ¦   ¦   ¦--country                   
21   ¦   ¦   ¦--distributionSetting       
22   ¦   ¦   ¦--distributionStrategies    
23   ¦   ¦   °--healthcareIntegration     
24   ¦   ¦--documentation                 
25   ¦   ¦   ¦--forDevs                   
26   ¦   ¦   °--forUsers                  
27   ¦   ¦--externalRequirements          
28   ¦   ¦   ¦--requiredDeviceSpecs       
29   ¦   ¦   °--requiredInfrastructure    
30   ¦   ¦       °--linkedDevice          
31   ¦   ¦--frontend                      
32   ¦   ¦   ¦--deliveryMode              
33   ¦   ¦   ¦--humanInvolvement          
34   ¦   ¦   ¦--responsiveDesign          
35   ¦   ¦   ¦--sourceCodeRepoLink        
36   ¦   ¦   ¦--tailoring                 
37   ¦   ¦   ¦--usability                 
38   ¦   ¦   °--language                  
39   ¦   ¦--legalEntities                 
40   ¦   ¦   ¦--developers                
41   ¦   ¦   ¦--distributor               
42   ¦   ¦   ¦--funder                    
43   ¦   ¦   °--owner                     
44   ¦   ¦       °--ownerId               
45   ¦   ¦--license                       
46   ¦   ¦--medicalDevice                 
47   ¦   ¦--rationale                     
48   ¦   ¦   ¦--logicModel                
49   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--BCP                   
50   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--bcpInstantiation      
51   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--designFeatures        
52   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--userControl       
53   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--intendedUse           
54   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--interventionDuration  
55   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--interventionGoal      
56   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--psychConstructGeneric 
57   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--psychConstructSpecific
58   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--targetConstruct       
59   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--condition         
60   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--theory                
61   ¦   ¦   ¦--targetPopulation          
62   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--condition             
63   ¦   ¦   ¦--targetProblem             
64   ¦   ¦   ¦--targetSetting             
65   ¦   ¦   °--targetSystemUnit          
66   ¦   ¦--safety                        
67   ¦   ¦   °--adrIndicentReport         
68   ¦   ¦--uptake                        
69   ¦   °--version                       
70   ¦--securityPrivacy                   
71   ¦   ¦--privacyCertification          
72   ¦   °--userConsent                   
73   ¦--study                             
74   ¦   ¦--metadata                      
75   ¦   ¦   ¦--authors                   
76   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--contactDetails        
77   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--ORCID                 
78   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--sciDiscipline         
79   ¦   ¦   ¦--CoI                       
80   ¦   ¦   ¦--funding                   
81   ¦   ¦   °--yearPublication           
82   ¦   ¦--method                        
83   ¦   ¦   ¦--analysis                  
84   ¦   ¦   ¦--eligibilityCrit           
85   ¦   ¦   ¦--instrumentReliability     
86   ¦   ¦   ¦--instrumentValidity        
87   ¦   ¦   ¦--masking                   
88   ¦   ¦   ¦--matching                  
89   ¦   ¦   ¦--power                     
90   ¦   ¦   ¦--preReg                    
91   ¦   ¦   ¦--randomization             
92   ¦   ¦   ¦--recruitment               
93   ¦   ¦   ¦--sampleSizeCalc            
94   ¦   ¦   ¦--sampling                  
95   ¦   ¦   ¦--statsAnalysis             
96   ¦   ¦   ¦   °--software              
97   ¦   ¦   ¦       °--codeImpl          
98   ¦   ¦   ¦--studyDesign               
99   ¦   ¦   ¦   ¦--followUps             
100  ¦   ¦   ¦   °--... 1 nodes w/ 2 sub  
101  ¦   ¦   °--... 1 nodes w/ 3 sub      
102  ¦   °--... 1 nodes w/ 22 sub         
103  °--... 1 nodes w/ 24 sub             
DiagrammeR::export_graph(
  data.tree::ToDiagrammeRGraph(
    round1_recoded_parsed$inductiveCodeTrees$codes
  ),
  
);

coded_entityIdentifiers <-
  round1_recoded_parsed$convenience$codingLeaves;

### Highest level codes:
hiLevelCodes <-
  names(round1_recoded_parsed$inductiveCodeTrees$codes$children);


# names(round1_recoded_parsed$fullyMergedCodeTrees$codes$children);
# 
# round1_recoded_parsed$fullyMergedCodeTrees$codes$instantiation;





rock::collect_coded_fragments(
  round1_recoded_parsed,
  codes = hiLevelCodes,
  includeDescendents = TRUE,
  headingLevel = 2,
  codeHeadingFormatting = "\n\n### %s\n\n*path:* `%s`\n\n",
  silent = FALSE
);
The regular expression passed in argument `codes` ('^instantiation$|^securityPrivacy$|^study$|^tool$') matches the following codings: 'instantiation', 'securityPrivacy', 'study' & 'tool'.

After combining with the descendent codes, the current list is: 'instantiation', 'backend', 'humanInvolvement', 'interoperability', 'OS', 'programmingLang', 'sourceCodeRepoLink', 'tailoring', 'cost', 'developmentCost', 'user', 'dataSharing', 'developmentProcess', 'broadInvolvement', 'framework', 'yearDev', 'distribution', 'appStore', 'country', 'distributionSetting', 'distributionStrategies', 'healthcareIntegration', 'documentation', 'forDevs', 'forUsers', 'externalRequirements', 'requiredDeviceSpecs', 'requiredInfrastructure', 'linkedDevice', 'frontend', 'deliveryMode', 'humanInvolvement', 'responsiveDesign', 'sourceCodeRepoLink', 'tailoring', 'usability', 'language', 'legalEntities', 'developers', 'distributor', 'funder', 'owner', 'ownerId', 'license', 'medicalDevice', 'rationale', 'logicModel', 'BCP', 'bcpInstantiation', 'designFeatures', 'userControl', 'intendedUse', 'interventionDuration', 'interventionGoal', 'psychConstructGeneric', 'psychConstructSpecific', 'targetConstruct', 'condition', 'theory', 'targetPopulation', 'condition', 'targetProblem', 'targetSetting', 'targetSystemUnit', 'safety', 'adrIndicentReport', 'uptake', 'version', 'securityPrivacy', 'privacyCertification', 'userConsent', 'study', 'metadata', 'authors', 'contactDetails', 'ORCID', 'sciDiscipline', 'CoI', 'funding', 'yearPublication', 'method', 'analysis', 'eligibilityCrit', 'instrumentReliability', 'instrumentValidity', 'masking', 'matching', 'power', 'preReg', 'randomization', 'recruitment', 'sampleSizeCalc', 'sampling', 'statsAnalysis', 'software', 'codeImpl', 'studyDesign', 'followUps', 'sysRev', 'search', 'keywords', 'yearStudy', 'results', 'acceptability', 'descriptives', 'effectSize', 'forestPlot', 'missingData', 'networkPlot', 'participantCharacteristics', 'participantFlow', 'posteriorDistr', 'primaryOutcome', 'riskOfBias', 'sample', 'sampleCharacteristics', 'sampleSize', 'secondaryOutcome', 'targetBehaviour', 'usability', 'userEngagement', 'tool' & 'toolId'.

Of these, the following were not used on any utterances: 'backend', 'cost', 'developmentProcess', 'documentation', 'frontend', 'logicModel', 'targetConstruct', 'study', 'method', 'sysRev' & 'search'.

This leaves the following codes: 'instantiation', 'humanInvolvement', 'interoperability', 'OS', 'programmingLang', 'sourceCodeRepoLink', 'tailoring', 'developmentCost', 'user', 'dataSharing', 'broadInvolvement', 'framework', 'yearDev', 'distribution', 'appStore', 'country', 'distributionSetting', 'distributionStrategies', 'healthcareIntegration', 'forDevs', 'forUsers', 'externalRequirements', 'requiredDeviceSpecs', 'requiredInfrastructure', 'linkedDevice', 'deliveryMode', 'humanInvolvement', 'responsiveDesign', 'sourceCodeRepoLink', 'tailoring', 'usability', 'language', 'legalEntities', 'developers', 'distributor', 'funder', 'owner', 'ownerId', 'license', 'medicalDevice', 'rationale', 'BCP', 'bcpInstantiation', 'designFeatures', 'userControl', 'intendedUse', 'interventionDuration', 'interventionGoal', 'psychConstructGeneric', 'psychConstructSpecific', 'condition', 'theory', 'targetPopulation', 'condition', 'targetProblem', 'targetSetting', 'targetSystemUnit', 'safety', 'adrIndicentReport', 'uptake', 'version', 'securityPrivacy', 'privacyCertification', 'userConsent', 'metadata', 'authors', 'contactDetails', 'ORCID', 'sciDiscipline', 'CoI', 'funding', 'yearPublication', 'analysis', 'eligibilityCrit', 'instrumentReliability', 'instrumentValidity', 'masking', 'matching', 'power', 'preReg', 'randomization', 'recruitment', 'sampleSizeCalc', 'sampling', 'statsAnalysis', 'software', 'codeImpl', 'studyDesign', 'followUps', 'keywords', 'yearStudy', 'results', 'acceptability', 'descriptives', 'effectSize', 'forestPlot', 'missingData', 'networkPlot', 'participantCharacteristics', 'participantFlow', 'posteriorDistr', 'primaryOutcome', 'riskOfBias', 'sample', 'sampleCharacteristics', 'sampleSize', 'secondaryOutcome', 'targetBehaviour', 'usability', 'userEngagement', 'tool' & 'toolId'.

   - Processing code 'instantiation'. 
   - Processing code 'humanInvolvement'. 
   - Processing code 'interoperability'. 
   - Processing code 'OS'. 
   - Processing code 'programmingLang'. 
   - Processing code 'sourceCodeRepoLink'. 
   - Processing code 'tailoring'. 
   - Processing code 'developmentCost'. 
   - Processing code 'user'. 
   - Processing code 'dataSharing'. 
   - Processing code 'broadInvolvement'. 
   - Processing code 'framework'. 
   - Processing code 'yearDev'. 
   - Processing code 'distribution'. 
   - Processing code 'appStore'. 
   - Processing code 'country'. 
   - Processing code 'distributionSetting'. 
   - Processing code 'distributionStrategies'. 
   - Processing code 'healthcareIntegration'. 
   - Processing code 'forDevs'. 
   - Processing code 'forUsers'. 
   - Processing code 'externalRequirements'. 
   - Processing code 'requiredDeviceSpecs'. 
   - Processing code 'requiredInfrastructure'. 
   - Processing code 'linkedDevice'. 
   - Processing code 'deliveryMode'. 
   - Processing code 'humanInvolvement'. 
   - Processing code 'responsiveDesign'. 
   - Processing code 'sourceCodeRepoLink'. 
   - Processing code 'tailoring'. 
   - Processing code 'usability'. 
   - Processing code 'language'. 
   - Processing code 'legalEntities'. 
   - Processing code 'developers'. 
   - Processing code 'distributor'. 
   - Processing code 'funder'. 
   - Processing code 'owner'. 
   - Processing code 'ownerId'. 
   - Processing code 'license'. 
   - Processing code 'medicalDevice'. 
   - Processing code 'rationale'. 
   - Processing code 'BCP'. 
   - Processing code 'bcpInstantiation'. 
   - Processing code 'designFeatures'. 
   - Processing code 'userControl'. 
   - Processing code 'intendedUse'. 
   - Processing code 'interventionDuration'. 
   - Processing code 'interventionGoal'. 
   - Processing code 'psychConstructGeneric'. 
   - Processing code 'psychConstructSpecific'. 
   - Processing code 'condition'. 
   - Processing code 'theory'. 
   - Processing code 'targetPopulation'. 
   - Processing code 'condition'. 
   - Processing code 'targetProblem'. 
   - Processing code 'targetSetting'. 
   - Processing code 'targetSystemUnit'. 
   - Processing code 'safety'. 
   - Processing code 'adrIndicentReport'. 
   - Processing code 'uptake'. 
   - Processing code 'version'. 
   - Processing code 'securityPrivacy'. 
   - Processing code 'privacyCertification'. 
   - Processing code 'userConsent'. 
   - Processing code 'metadata'. 
   - Processing code 'authors'. 
   - Processing code 'contactDetails'. 
   - Processing code 'ORCID'. 
   - Processing code 'sciDiscipline'. 
   - Processing code 'CoI'. 
   - Processing code 'funding'. 
   - Processing code 'yearPublication'. 
   - Processing code 'analysis'. 
   - Processing code 'eligibilityCrit'. 
   - Processing code 'instrumentReliability'. 
   - Processing code 'instrumentValidity'. 
   - Processing code 'masking'. 
   - Processing code 'matching'. 
   - Processing code 'power'. 
   - Processing code 'preReg'. 
   - Processing code 'randomization'. 
   - Processing code 'recruitment'. 
   - Processing code 'sampleSizeCalc'. 
   - Processing code 'sampling'. 
   - Processing code 'statsAnalysis'. 
   - Processing code 'software'. 
   - Processing code 'codeImpl'. 
   - Processing code 'studyDesign'. 
   - Processing code 'followUps'. 
   - Processing code 'keywords'. 
   - Processing code 'yearStudy'. 
   - Processing code 'results'. 
   - Processing code 'acceptability'. 
   - Processing code 'descriptives'. 
   - Processing code 'effectSize'. 
   - Processing code 'forestPlot'. 
   - Processing code 'missingData'. 
   - Processing code 'networkPlot'. 
   - Processing code 'participantCharacteristics'. 
   - Processing code 'participantFlow'. 
   - Processing code 'posteriorDistr'. 
   - Processing code 'primaryOutcome'. 
   - Processing code 'riskOfBias'. 
   - Processing code 'sample'. 
   - Processing code 'sampleCharacteristics'. 
   - Processing code 'sampleSize'. 
   - Processing code 'secondaryOutcome'. 
   - Processing code 'targetBehaviour'. 
   - Processing code 'usability'. 
   - Processing code 'userEngagement'. 
   - Processing code 'tool'. 
   - Processing code 'toolId'. 

Collected coded fragments with 0 lines of context

instantiation

path: instantiation


User type – Relevance to determine use cases – (professional, general population, …). – (removed) – (removed) [instantiation] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

What is open? Data Code Design features Content – – – (removed) – (removed) [instantiation] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

humanInvolvement

path: instantiation>backend>humanInvolvement


Automation level / degree of human involvement (e.g., health coach, nutrition expert, etc.) – – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>frontend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

Intervention delivery (e.g., engagement features), dose, number of modules, intervention duration, intervention providers, reminders, notifications, gamification, interactive content – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1687 https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/5-125 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2055207618785841 – – (removed) – (removed) [[rationale>logicModel>BCP]] [[rationale>logicModel>interventionDuration]] [[rationale>logicModel>designFeatures]] [[instantiation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>frontend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

Level of human involvement – Same as above – Consort eHealth – – [[instantiation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>frontend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

physician assisted or not telemedicine(?) – Option to request professional feedback or even distant clinical assessment – - – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>frontend>humanInvolvement]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

interoperability

path: instantiation>backend>interoperability


Interoperability (e.g., connection to and interactivity with other regional, national, or international information systems) – For digital health to be effective, multiple levels of interoperability are required, from the purely technical through to ensuring shared understandings, right up to the organizational and system levels. Whether a tool makes use of interoperability standards (e.g, HL7, SNOMED) Replicability, generalisability, scalability – The ability of different applications to access, exchange, integrate and cooperatively use data in a coordinated manner through the use of shared application interfaces and standards, within and across organizational, regional and national boundaries, to provide timely and seamless portability of information and optimize health outcomes Global strategy on digital health 2020-2025. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021 (link) https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>interoperability]] [tool] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

OS

path: instantiation>backend>OS


Operating system requirements – To know on which OS the tool can run – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>OS]] [tool] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

Operating system, Apple, Andoid – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>OS]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

operating systems/ platforms – fundamental information to enable comparison and categorisation – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>OS]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

OS type – Determine possibility of use in specific contexts – (windows, macos, ios, android, …) – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>OS]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

Supported Devices – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>OS]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

System type – Relevance to determine use cases – In the sense of the “System categories” of figure 1 of the WHO document: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/260480 – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>OS]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

programmingLang

path: instantiation>backend>programmingLang


Programming language – Replicability, generalisability, scalability Again, context for the DHT Necessary to group tools Relevant to tech developers and scientists – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>programmingLang]] [tool] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>legalEntities]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

tailoring

path: instantiation>backend>tailoring


Intervention adaptation type (e.g., no adaptation, to individual differences, to temporal changes in individuals’ states) – – – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>backend>tailoring]] [[instantiation>frontend>tailoring]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

developmentCost

path: instantiation>cost>developmentCost


Cost – Replicability, generalisability, scalability Funders will be interested Transparency – https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>cost>developmentCost]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

Intervention costs – Same as above/implementation – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>cost>developmentCost]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

user

path: instantiation>cost>user


monetization strategies – important to facilitate assessment of ethical considerations – https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1007/s10676-020-09576-6 – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>cost>user]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

dataSharing

path: instantiation>dataSharing


data management/sharing mechanisms – important to facilitate assessment of privacy and security considerations – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>dataSharing]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [securityPrivacy] [[instantiation>safety]]

broadInvolvement

path: instantiation>developmentProcess>broadInvolvement


Codesign / stakeholder involvement (development and implementation processes) – As above Transparency Replicability, generalisability (transferability for us qualitative researchers! – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>developmentProcess>broadInvolvement]] [tool] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

design process/ethos (participatory, user-centred, PPI etc.) – provides insight into the degree of user-involvement in system-development – https://hbr.org/2008/06/design-thinking – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>developmentProcess>broadInvolvement]] [tool] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

Development process – – e.g. expert-based, participatory – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>developmentProcess>broadInvolvement]] [tool] [[tool>toolId]] [[instantiation>externalRequirements]] [[instantiation>safety]]

End-user/stakeholder involvement in the technology development (usability and accessibility), tailoring, personalisation, feasibility, acceptability, stakeholder engagement, PPI, co-production, – Replicability, generalisability, scalability – https://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i1174 – – (removed) – (removed) [[instantiation>developme